O. spectabilis L. Lvs. 2, nearly as long as the scape; lip obovate, undivided, crenate, retuse; segments of the perianth straight, the lateral ones longer; spur clavate, shorter than the ovary, bracts longer than the flower. - This pretty little plant is found in shady woods and thickets, among rocks, etc., U. S. and Can. Root fasciculate. Leaves few, radical, ovate, 3 - 6' long, 1/3 to 1/2 as wide. Scape 4 - 6' high, acutely angled, with a lanceolate, acute bract and 3 - 5 large, showy flowers. Segments of the perianth purple, ovate-lanceolate. Lip and spur white or whitish, each about 8" long. May, Jn.
3. GYMNADE'NIA, R. Brown. Orchis. (Gr. naked, gland.) Anther-cells parallel or converging below; glands of the stigma to which the pollinia are attached naked. Otherwise as in Orchis.
1 G. nivea. St. very slender, lowest leaf long, linear, acute, the others (6 to 12) very much smaller, subulate, bract-like; fls. 20 to 30, small, in an oblong-cylin-dric spike; lip (white) oblong, crenulate or wavy, longer than the petals, produced behind into a filiform spur which is nearly twice longer than the ovary; column very short; pollinia at length naked. - Ga. (Pond) to Fla. and La. (Hale). Root fibrous, producing tuberous corms. St. 1 to 2f high, leaf 6 to 8' long, 3 to 4" wide. Fls. white, very delicate, rather smaller than in Nos. 2 and 3. (Orchis nivea Baldw.)
2 G. tridentata Lindl. St. slender; lowest leaf linear-oblong or oblanceolale, obtuse, the others 3 or 4, very small and bract-like; fls. 7 to 12, sessile, in a short, open spike; sep. obtuse, erect-spreading; lip a little longer, truncate and 3-toothed at the apex, produced behind into a slender, often clavellate spur which is longer than the ovary. - In damp woods, Can. and U. S. Root a few thick fibers. St. 12 to 18'high, leaf about 6', bracts 1'and less. Spike often as wide as long, with small, greenish-white fls. Spur 4 or 5" long, usually curved. Jn., Jl. (O. tridentata Willd.)
β. CLAVELLATA has the fls. more diverging and the spur conspicuously club-shaped. - South.
3 G. flava Lindl. St. flexuous, leafy; lower lvs. narrow-lanceolate, acute, upper gradually smaller; spike densely many-flowered; lip (yellow) ovate, crenulate or somewhat Wavy, longer than the broad-ovate, obtuse sepals, shorter than the subulate spur. - Swamps, in pine barrens, N. J. to Ga. and La. Rt. of thickened fibres. St. 12 to 15' high, with lvs. nearly as long as the internodes. Spike globular or oblong, with 30 to 50 small, orange-colored fls. Sep. about 1" long, spur nearly 3", lip 2". Jn., Jl (O. flava and nigra Nutt.)
4. PLATAN'THERA, Richard. Orchis. (Gr. broad, anther.) Anther cells diverging below, and the two glands to which the pedicellate pollinia are attached widely separated. Otherwise as in Orchis. (Platanthera and Gymnadenia are separated from Orchis by characters purely artificial, and should be reunited with it.)
* Leaf only one. Flowers greenish - white. Lip entire or 3-lobed...............
Nos. 1, 2
* Leaves only two, roundish, large. Flowers greenish. Lip entire..............
Nos. 3, 4
* Leaves several, clothing the stem more or less, (a)
a Lip undivided and entire, neither fringed, lobed, nor toothed, whitish...................
Nos. 5, 6
a Lip undivided, - but 3-toothed not fringed. Flowers yellowish..........................
Nos. 7, 8
- but fringed. Flowers bright yellow or white...........................
Nos. 9 - 11
a Lip 3-parted, - segments iringed. Flowers white or greenish...........................
- segements fringed. Flowers purple......................................
Nos. 14. 15
- segments merely toothed, terminal one 2-lobed. Fls, purple..........
- segments entire, long, linear-setaceous, Whitish..............................
Nos. 17, 18
1 P. obtusata Lindl. Lf. solitary, oblong-obovate, obtuse; st. bearing the led' near its base; spike loose: upper sep. broadest; pet. subtriangular; lip linear, entire, with 2 tubercles at base, as long as the arcuate, acute spur. - Found in muddy ponds and ditches, N. H. (Storrs), N. to Lab. Stem slender, angular, 6' - 8' high, terminating in a thin spike of about a dozen small, greenish-white flowers. Leaf tapering at base, usually obtuse at the summit, 2 - 3' in length, and 1 in breadth, issuing with the stem from 2 - 3 radical, sheathing bracts. July.
2 P. rotundifolia Lindl. Lf. solitary, roundish-ovate; scape naked; spike few-flowered; bracts obtuse, shorter than the ovary; sep. and pet obtuse: lip 3-lobed, lateral lobes subfalcate, middle one obcordate,' spur as long as the lip. - Ct., Penn. (Eaton), Can. Scape near a foot high, slender, without a bract. Leaf 2 - 4' long, 3/4 as wide, spotted, sheathing at base. Flowers about a dozen, of a greenish-white, remarkable for their broad, 3 (almost 4)-lobed, pendent lip. (0. rotund. Ph.)
3 P. orbiculata Lindl. Lvs. 2, radical, suborbicular, rather fleshy; scape bractc-ate; upper sep. orbicular, lateral ones ovale; lip linear-subspatulate, nearly twice as long as the sepals; spur arcuate, compressed, clavate, twice as long as the ovary. - A remarkable plant, not uncommon in old woods and in thickets, Penn. to Can. and W. States. Leaves lying flat upon the ground, 3 - 6' diam., rather inclining to oval or ovate with the apex acute. Scape 1 - 2f high, sheathed with a few bracts, bearing a raceme of numerous, greenish-white flowers. Lip 9 to 12" by 1" or narrower. Spur 1 1/2 - 2' long. Jl. (O. orbiculata Ph.)
4 P. Hookeri Lindl. Lvs. 2, radical, suborbicular or suboval, fleshy; scape naked; bracts lanceolate, nearly as long as the flowers; upper sepal ovate, erect, tateral ones deflexed and meeting behind; pet. acute, lip lanceolate, projecting, acuminate, a little longer than the sepals; spur subulate, arcuate, about twice longer than the ovary. - Woods, Can., N. Eng. to Wis. (Lapham), rare. Resembles 0. orbiculata, but is very distinct. Scape 8 - 12' high, without a bract below the flowers. Leaves 4 - 5' long, nearly or quite as wide. Flowers 12 - 18, in a straight raceme, yellowish-green, the spur 9 - 12" in length. Jn., Jl. (O Hookeriana, 2d Edit.)
5 P. hyperborea Lindl. St. leafy; lvs. very erect, acute, lanceolate; spike elongated, many-flowered; bracts linear-lanceolate, acute, longer than the flower; sep. deflexed; petals and lip linear, obtuse, subequal, the latter somewhat lanceolate, and about as long as the pendulous, obtuse spur. - A tall, leafy, variable species, in mountainous woods and open meadows. N. Y. to Mich, and Can. Stems thick, 1 to 3 or even 4f high. Lvs. lanceolate, 4 to 7 by 1 to 1 1/2'. Flowers greenish in shades, nearly white in open situations, forming a long, more or less dense spike. Jl. - A coarser plant than the next, which it often approaches in the mora slender variety Huronensis.