Trees or shrubs with alternate, coriaceous, simple, entire or lobed (never toothed) leaves. Leaf buds sheathed with membranous stipules which soon fall off. Fls. large, polypetalous, polyandrous, polygynons. hypogynous, perfect Calyx and corolla imbricated in bud, colored alike, in 3 or more 3-merous circles. Ovaries several or many, compactly covering the elongated torus. Fruit of numerous dry or fleshy carpels, aggregated into a sort of cone. Seeds 1 or 2 in each carpel, with a minute embryo in fleshy albumen. (See Figs. 68, 72, 131.)
An order of 12 genera and 68 species, including some of the most splendid of flowering trees and shrubs. Most of them belong to the Southern States, some to the Western, and a few to Japan, China and India.
Properties. - The bark is aromatic, containing an intensely bitter principle, which is tonic and stimulating. The flowers are fragrant and aromatic in a high degree.
TRIBES AND GENERA.
Tribe ILLICIEAE. Carpels arranged into a single circle.......................
Tribe MAGNOLIEAE. Carpels imbricated into a cone-like fruit.*
* Anthers opening inwards. Lvs- folded lengthwise in bud........................
* Anthers opening outwards. Lvs. folded crosswise in bud...........................
1. 1LLICIUM, L. Star Anise. Sepals 3 - 6, colored; petals 6 - 30; carpels capsular, dry, arranged circularly, dehiscent on the upper side, each with one smooth shining seed. - Shrubs with very smooth, evergreen leaves; exhaling, when bruised, the odor of Anise.
1 I. floridarrum Ellis. Petals 21 - 30, purple; lvs. acuminate. - Swamps, Fls. to La. Shrub 4 - 8f high. Lvs. on short petioles, oblong-lanceolate, slightly acuminate, entire, smooth, thick, 3 - 6' by 1 - 2'. Fls. about 1 1/2' broad, on slender, nodding pedicles. Cal. deciduous. Petals purplish crimson, linear, obtuse, in 3 whorls. Sta. 30 or more. Ova. about 12 in one regular circle, with short, recurved styles. Seed polished, as large as that of the apple. May.
2 I. parvifiora Mx. Petals 6 - 12, yellowish; lvs. oblong, obtusish. - River banks, Fla. and Ga. Shrub 6 - 10f high. Lvs. thick and leathery, entire, on short petioles. Fls. smaller than in the last, nodding, dull yellow. Petals ovate or roundish, concave. May. The bark and leaves of these plants are strongly aromatic and spicy, in their properties, much resembling Anise. The root of the latter has the properties of Sassafras.
2. MAGNOLIA, L. (Named for Prof. Magnol, a French botanist of the 17th century.) Sepals 3; petals 6 - 9; anthers longer than the filaments, opening inwards; carpels 2-valved, 1 - 2-seeded, aggregated into a hard, cone-like fruit; seeds berry-like, and suspended from the opening carpels by a long funiculus. - Trees and shrubs with large, fragrant flowers. Lvs. conduplicate in the bud, embracing and embraced by the sheathing stipules.
* Leaves cordate or auriculate at the base. Trees 30-40f high.............................
Nos. 5, 6
* Leaves acute at the base, - ferruginous or glaucous beneath. thick..............................
- green (not shining) both sides, thin................................
Nos. 3, 4
Exotic species, cultivated.
Nos. 8 - 10
1 M. grandiflora L. Big Laurel. Tree; lvs. rust-downy beneath, evergreen; petals obovate. - In swampy woods, N. Car. to Fla. and Miss. A stately and beautiful tree, attaining the hight of 70 - 90f, with a diameter of 2 or 3f at base. Its form in open ground is pyramidal Bark smooth, gray, resembling that of the beech. Lvs. 6 - 8' long, thick and firm, oval-oblong, entire, dark green and shining above, clothed with a rust-colored tomentum beneath. Fls. pure white, strongly fragrant, 8 or 9' broad. The seeds after quitting the cells of the ovoid fruit remain several days suspended on a white thread. May.
2 M. glauca L. White Bay. Beaver Tree. Shrub or small tree; lvs. oval, obtuse, gaucous-while beneath; petals ovate or roundish, erect. - Native in marshy grounds, Mass. to La., chiefly found near the coast. It is a fine shrub, 5 - 20 f. high, with a grayish bark, crooked, divaricate branches. Lvs. beneath remarkably pale, silky when young, 3 - 4' long, 8' on the young shoots, entire, nearly persistent southward. Fls. 2' broad, cup-shaped, with white, concave petals, very fragrant. May (South) - Jl.
3 M. acuminata L. Cucumber Tree. Lvs. oval, acuminate, pubescent beneath: petals obovate, obtusish. - Groves near the Falls of Niagara, but more abundant in the Southern States. It is a noble forest tree. Trunk perfectly straight, 4 - 5f diam., 60 - 80f high, bearing an ample and regular summit. Lvs. very acuminate Fls. 5 - 6' diam., bluish, sometimes yellowish-white, numerous, and finely contrasted with the rich, dark foliage. Cones of fruit about 3' long, cylindrie, bearing some resemblance to a small cucumber. May.
4 M. umbrella Lam. Umbrella Tree. Lvs. deciduous, cuneate-lanceolate, silky when young; sep. 3, reflexed; pet. 9, narrow-lanceolate, acute. - A small tree 20 - 30f high, common in the southern States, extending north to southern N. Y. and O. Branches irregular. Lvs. 16 - 20' by 6 - 8', appearing whorled at the end of the branches in the form of an umbrella. Fls. terminal, white, 7 - 8' diam. Fr. conical, 4 - 5' long, rose-colored when ripe. May, Jn.
5 M. macrophylla Mx. Lvs. obovate-spatulate, cordate; pet. rhomb-ovate, white, purple inside at base. - River banks, Chattahoochee to Red R. (Dr. Hale), north to the Tenn. (Miss Carpenter), and to the Ky. R. A small tree 30 - 50f high, 8 - 10' diam. Lvs. with a strong midvein, often, on young shoots, 3f in length by 1f in breadth, glaucous-white beneath. Fls. magnificent, the separate petals measuring 6 - 8' in length. Sepals erect, lance-linear. June.
6 M. Fraseri Walt. Lvs. obovate-spatulate, auriculate at the narrowed base, glabrous; pet. pure white. - A slender tree, 25 - 35f high, Fla. northward to Va. and Ky. Bark smooth, light-gray. Lvs. 6 - 9' long, 4 - 6' broad above, much narrowed below, and ending at base in peculiar ear-shaped lobes. Sep. 3, greenish on the back. Pet. 6, lance-ovate, thick, 2 1/2 - 3' long, strongly aromatic. Apr. May.
7 M. cordata Mx. Lvs. broadly ovale, subcordate, acute, whitish and pubescent beneath; pet. 6 - 9, oblong, yellow. - The yellow flowered species inhabits the upland regions of Ga. and Car. Trunk straight, 40 - 50f high, covered with a deeply furrowed bark. Lvs. long-petioled, 4 - 6' by 3 - 4', smooth, and entire. Fls. about 4' diam., marked within with fine red lines. Fr. cylindrical, 3' long. May.
8 M. fuscata. Lvs. evergreen, elliptic or oblong, clothed with fuscous down when young, at length glabrous; branches also fuscous-tomentous; fls. erect. - From China. Shrub 3f high. Fls. brownish.
9 M. obovata L. Lvs. deciduous, obovate, acute, strongly veined, glabrous; fls. erect; sep. 3; petals 6; obovate. - From China. Shrub 6f high, opening its erect, cup-shaped, rose-purple fls. in May.
10 M. conspicua L. Yulan. Lvs. deciduous, obovate, abruptly acuminate, the younger pubescent; sep. none or very small; pet. 6 - 9, white or rose color.- From China. Shrub or small tree, 10 - 30f high, with numerous white, fragrant flowers appearing early in spring.
3. LIRIODENDRON, L. Tulip Tree. (Gr. a lily; a tree.) Sepals 3, reflexed, caducous; petals 6, erect; carpels imbricated in a cone, 1 - 2-seeded, indehiscent and attenuated at apex into a lanceolate wing. - Tree, with showy, bell-shaped, upright flowers. Vernation induplicate. Stipules large, oval, caducous. In the bud, each leaf bends inward to an inverted position, infolds all that is within it, and is in itself infolded by its pair of stipules and by the next lower leaf, and so on as seen in Figs. 68, 72.
L. tulipifera. Tulip Tree. White-Wood. Poplar. A fine tree, one of most remarkable of the American forests, Can. to La., especially abundant in the Western States. It is ordinarily about 80f high, with a diam. of 2 or 3f, but along the Ohio and Miss, rivers it grows much larger. Near Bloomington, Ind., we measured a tree of this species which had been recently felled. Its circumference 4f from the ground was 23f; 30f from the ground its diam. was 5f; the whole hight 125f The trunk is perfectly straight and cylindric. At top it divides abruptly into coarse, crooked, rather unsightly branches. Lvs. dark-green, smooth, truncate at the end, with 2 lateral lobes, 3 - 5' in length and breadth, on long petioles. In May and June it puts forth numerous campanulate flowers, greenish yellow, orange within, solitary, broader than the tulip, and erect The wood is extensively used as a substitute for pine.