7. LUDWIG'IA, L. Bastard Loosestrife. (To C. D. Ludwig, Prof. of Botany at Leipzic, 1750.) Calyx tube not prolonged beyond the ovary, limb 4-lobed, mostly persistent; petals 4, equal, obcordate, often minute or none; stamens 4, opposite the sepals; style short; capsule short, often perforated at top, 4-celled, 4-valved, many-seeded, and crowned with the persistent calyx lobes.- Herbs in wet grounds. Lvs. entire.
§ Leaves alternate, sessile. (a)
a Petals large, yellow. Fruit pedicellate, short...................................
Nos. 1- 3
a Petals small, yellowish. Fruit sessile, elongated, smooth....................
Nos. 4, 5
a Pet. 0 or minute. - Fruit elongated, hairy or smooth..........................
Nos. 6, 7
- Fruit short, smooth. - Stem winged................
- Stem teretish. - Fls. axillary
Nos. 9 - 11
- Fls. capitate
§ Leaves opposite, petiolate. - Fls. sessile, mostly apetalous............................
Nos. 13 - 15
- Fls. pedicellate, with showy petals.....................
1 L. alternifolia L. Seed-Box. Erect, branched, glabrous; lvs. lanceolate, acute, sessile, pale beneath; ped. axillary, solitary, 1-flowered, 2-bracted above the middle; petals scarcely as large as the spreading, acuminate sepals; caps. largo, with 4, winged angles, crowned with the colored calyx. - Shady swamps. St. 1 to 3f high, round, with a strong bark, and several branches. Lvs. with marginal veins, 2 to 3' long, 1/2 to 1' wide. Caps. convex at apex, the angles conspicuously winged. Sep. large, purplish. Petals large, yellow, showy. Jl., Aug.
2 L. hirtella Raf. Hairy, erect, sparingly branched; lvs. ovate-oblong, sessile, obtuse; fls. axillary, solitary, pedicellate, with 2 bractlets below it; sep. nearly as long as the pet.; caps. subglobous, 4-augled and winged. - Moist soils, N. J. to Fla. St. 1 to 3f high. Lvs. numerous, hairy on both sides, 1/2 to 1 3/4 by 2 to 8". Els. yellow, about 3/4' diam. Cal. spreading, and, with caps. villous. Jn. - Sept. (L. hirsuta Ph.)
3 L. virgata Ph. Nearly glabrous, erect, virgate; lvs. oblong, closely sessile, obtuse, the upper linear; fls. large, on a slender pedicel; petals longer than the leafy calyx lobes; caps. roundish-cubical, with winged angles, and finally as long as the reflexed cal. lobes. - In dry soils, S. States. Sts. 2 to 3f high. Lvs. 1 to 2' long. Fls. spreading 1'. on pedicels 6" long. May - Sept.
4 L. linearis Walt. Glabrous, slender, with angular, erect branches; lvs. lance-linear, acute at each end; fls. axillary, solitary, sessile; pet. obovate-oblong, slightly longer than the triangular-ovate sep. which are much shorter than the elongated, obovoid-clavate, 4-sided capsules. - Swamps, N. J. and S. States. Plant 1 to 2f high, with the habit of Lythrum alatum, often sending out runners at the base, with obovate leaves. Fls. sometimes apetalous. Jl. - Sept. (Isuardia DC.)
5 L. linifolia Poir. Glabrous, mostly simple, creeping at base, then erect; lvs. spreading, linear, rather acute, tapering to a slender base; fls. closely sessile; cal.-lobes ovate, acuminate, about the length of the petals and of the oblong, 4-sided capsules. - Muddy places, N. Car. to Fla. Plant 1f high, with much the habit of Proserpinaca palustris. Lvs. 1' long.
6 L. cylindrica Ell. Glabrous, erect, much branched; lvs. lanceolate, acute; fls minute, 1 to 3 together, apetalous; cal. lobes much shorter than the rather slender, cylindrical, abrupt capsule. - S. Car. to Fla. and Tex. St. 3f high. Lvs. veiny and somewhat denticulate. Capsules 2 to 4" in length, 1" wide. Jl. - Sept. (Isnardia DC.)
7 L. pilosa Walt. Villous-pubescent, erect, much branched; lvs. lanceolate, acute; fls. axillary and spiked above; cal. lobes ovate-acuminate, about as long as the oblong, 4-sided, villous capsule. - Swamp. S. Car. to Fla. and La. Plant 2 to 3f high. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, those of the branches much diminished, of the stolons spatulate. Caps. about 4" by 2 or 3". Jl. - Sept. (Isnardia DC.)
8 L. alata Ell. Glabrous, few-branched, erect; st. winged by the decurrent bases of the lanceolate lvs.; fls. solitary, apetalous; cal. lobes broadly ovate, nearly as long as the small, 4-sided, obconic capsule. - Swamps, S. States. Plant about 2f high. Lvs. 1 to 3' long, the lower broad-oval. Jl. - Sept. (Isnardia DC.)
9 L. sphaerocarpa Ell. Erect, smooth, or nearly so; lvs. lanceolate, acute, attenuate at base; fls. axillary, subsolitary, on very short pedicels; pet. minute or wanting, as well as the bractlets; sep. as long as the small subglobous caps. - In water, S. to Ga, partly submerged, or in very wet grounds, near Boston, Mass. St. 2 to 3f high, branching, angular. Margin of the lvs. rough, sometimes remotely and obscurely denticulate. Fls. greenish, inconspicuous. Jl. - Sept. (Isnardia DC.)
10 L. polycarpa Short & Peter. Glabrous, erect, much branched, and often stoloniferous; lvs. lance-linear, gradually acute at each end; fls. apetalous. axillary, solitary, with 2 subulate bractlets at base; caps. 4-angled, truncated above, tapering below, crowned with the 4-lobed stylopodium. - Swamps, W. States. St. 1 to 3f high. Lvs. 2 to 3' by 2 to 4", ten times longer than the flowers. Aug. - Oct.
11 L. microcarpa Mx. Glabrous; st. creeping at base, then ascending; lvs. spatulate-obovate, minutely denticulate; cal. lobes roundish, acuminate, larger than the very small, obovate capsule; stig. sessile. - Wet grounds, S. Car. to Fla. St mostly simple, 1f high, often with stolons at base. Jl. - Sept. (Isnardia lan-ceoiata DC.)
12 L. capitata Mx. Glabrous, erect, slender; lvs. lance-linear or lance-oblong, obtuse at the sessile base, obtuse or very acute at the apex; fls. sessile, crowded in a terminal bracted head or spike; cal. lobes shorter than the 4-angled capsule. - 8. Car. to Fla. Sts. 2 to 3f high, simple, or with few virgate branches. Lvs. 1 to 3' long, the upper linear and taper-pointed. Aug. - Oct. (Isnardia DC.)
13 L. palustris Ell. Water Purslane. Prostrate and creeping, smooth, and slightly succulent; lvs. opposite, ovate-spatulate, acute, tapering at base into a petiole; fls. sessile, solitary; pet. 0, or very small, flesh color; caps. oblong, abrupt at both ends, with 4 green angles; bractlets 0. - In U. S. and Can., creeping in muddy places or floating in water. St. round, reddish, 10 to 18' long. Cal. lobes and sty. very short. Caps. 2" long. Jn. - Sept. (Isnardia L.)
14 L. natans Ell. Craping or floating, smooth and slightly succulent; lvs. oblong, tapering to a petiole, or the lower subsessile; fls. sessile; cal. lobes triangular-ovate, acute, as long as the yellow petals; ova. with 2 conspicuous bracteoles; fr. 4-angled, tapering to the base. - Swamps, S. States. Caps. about 4" long, at first top-shaped. Jl. - Oct.