Trees, shrubs and herbs. Lvs. opposite, somewhat verticillate, entire. Stipules between the petioles, sometimes resembling the leaves. Calyx tube more or less ad-herent to the ovary; limb 4 to 5-cleft. Corolla regular, inserted upon the calyx tube, and of the same number of divisions. Stamens inserted upon the tube of the corolla, equal in number and altornate with its segments. Ovaries 2 (rarely more)-<vl!ed. Style single or partly divided. Fr. various. Seeds one, few. or many in each cell. (Fig. 183.)

Genera 330, species 2800. It is generally divided into two suborders. viz.. Stellatea and Cin-choncie, to which a third, Logunien- (which has fow representatives :at the North) is appended by

Torrey and Gray. The species of the first suborder, Stellatese, are common in the northern parts of both continents; the other suborder prevails chiefly in warm or torrid regions.

Properties. - A very important family, furnishing many useful products. The madder, one of the most important of dyes, is furnished by the root of Rubia tinctoria. A similar coloring matter is possessed by several species of Galium. Peruvian bark, a powerful febrifuge, is the product of several species of Cinchona, viz., C. mieranthia, C. condaminea, C. Ianceolata, C. mag-nifolia, ifce, all natives of Peru. Their febrifugal properties depend upon the presence of two alkalies, Cinchonia and Quinia, both combined with Kinic ;acid. Ipecacuanha, the prince of emetics, is the product of the root of Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, a little shrubby plant with creeping roots, in the damp forests of Brazil. Several other species of Cincnonea; afford substitutes for the true Ipecac.

Coffee is the hard albumen of the seeds of Coffea Arabica, a tree of moderate size, with a light brown trunk, and a conical shaped head. Leaves shining, light green. Flowers white, fragrant. The berries are black when ripe. Coffee is said to have been used in Ethiopia from time immemorial. In Paris and London it seems not to have been in general use earlier than the year 1700.

Suborders And Genera

1 STELLA.TEae. Leaves (and leaf-like stipules?) whorlcd. Ovary entirely adherent (a)

a Flowers 4-parted. Fruit twin. Slender herbs with square stems....

. Galium.


a Flowers 5-partcd. Fruit twin, fleshy and baccate. Stems square....



2. CINCHONEae. Leaves opposite, with stipules between the petioles. Ovary

adherent, at least the lower half, (b)

b tree. flowers 5-parted, in involucrate cymes....................................



b shurb. flowers 4-parted , in globular heads ......................................



b Herbs. Flowers habitually 4-parted (5-parted in 0. Halci). (c)

c flowers twin (2 corollas on one (double) ovary).......................



c flowers not twin -carpels 2, 1-seeded,both indehiscent............



-carpels 2, 1-seeded, one indehiscent............

. Sperm acoce.


- Carpels 2, few-seeded. Corolla much exserted



- Carpels 2, -seeded. Corolla scarcely ex-




1. GA'LIUM, L. Cleavers. Bedstraw. (Gr.Suborders And Genera 823 , milk; the flowers of G. verum are used in coagulating milk.) Calyx limb minutely 4-toothed ; corolla rotate, 4-cleft; stamens 4, short; styles 2; carpels 2, united, separating into 2, 1-seeded, indehiscent nutlets. - Herbs with slender, 4 angled sts. Verticels of 4, 6 or 8 lvs., rarely of 5.

a flowers yellow . leaves in whorls of about 8. fruit smooth..........................

........No. 1

a Flowers dull purple. Leaves (largo) in whorls of 4. Fruit hispid or not-----

...Nos. 2 - 4

a flowers white,- leaves in 4s only. fruit dry. panicle terminal......................

.......No. 5

- leaves in 4s only. fruit smooth, purple berries..................

....Nos. 6,7

-Leaves in 4s and 6s. - Fruit hispid with hooked hairs.......

......No. 8

- fruit smooth or nearly so, dry...............

..Nos. 9 - 11

-leaves in 8s, long and narrow . fruit hispid.........................

......No. 12

1 G. verum L. Yellow Bedstraw. Erect; lvs. in 8s. grooved, entire, rough, linear; fls. densely paniculate. - Ц Found in dry, open grounds, in the vicinity of Boston, probably introduced (Bigelow). Root long, fibrous. St. slender, erect, 1 to 2f high, with short, opposite, leafy, unequal branches. Lvs. deflexed, linear, with rolled edges. Fls. numerous, small yellow, in small, dense, terminal panicles. Jn. - The roots dye red. The flowers are used in England to curdle milk. §Eur.

2 G. pilosum Ait. St. ascending, hirsute on the angles; lvs. in 4s, oval, indistinctly veined, hirsute both sides and punctate with pellucid dots; ped. several times forked, each division 2 to 3-flowered; fls. pedicellate, densely hispid. - A tall species found in dry woods and sterile soils, Mass. to Ind., S. to the Gulf. St. 1 to 2f high, acutely 4-angled, mostly with few, short, spreading branches, sometimes much branched. Lvs. 9 to 12" by 4 to 8", obtusish, very hairy as well as the stem and fruit. Fls. purplish. Jn. (G. puncticulosum Mx.)

3 G. circae'zans Mx. St. erect or ascending, smooth; lvs. in 4s, oval or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, 3-veined, smoothish, ciliate on the margins and veins; ped. divaricate, few-flowered; fr. subsessile, nodding, hispid. - Grows in woods, IT. S. and Can. St. about If in height; with a few short branches near the top, or simple. Lvs. 1 to 2' by 4 to 8". Fls. on very short, reflexed pedicels, scattered along the (usually 2) branches of the dichotomous peduncle. Fr. covered with little hooks as in Cireaae. Jl. - The leaves have a sweet taste like liquorice.

. lanceolatum Torr. Very smooth; lvs. lanceolate; fr. sessile. - A fine variety with larger leaves (2' or more in length). Fls. purple. (G. Torreyi Bw.) y. montanum T. & G. Dwarf; lvs. obovate. - White Mts. (Oakes.) (G. Lit-telli Oakes.)

4 G. latifolium Mx. St. erect, smooth; lvs. in 4s, lanceolate, 3-veined, very acute; ped. axillary (leafy) and terminal, about twice trichotomous; purple Jls. and smooth fruit on filiform pedicels. - Mts. E. Tenn. and Va. to Ga. An elegant species. St. about 2f high. Lvs. 1 to 2' long. Fls. very small, pedicels 2 to 6" long, divaricate. Jl.

5 G. boreale L. St. erect, smooth; lvs. in 4s, linear-lanceolate, rather acute, 3-veined, smooth; fls. in a terminal pyramidal panicle. - Grows in rocky, shady places, N. States and Brit. Am. Sts. If or more high, several together, branched above. Lvs. 12 to 20" by 2 to 9", tapering to an obtusish point. Fls. numerous, small, white, in a thyrse-like panicle at top of the stem. Fr. small. Jl. (G. septentrionale Bw.)

6 G. hispidulum Mx. Diffuse, 'minutely hispid; lvs. in 4s, oval, thickish, mostly acute or mucronate; ped. axillary, 1 to 3-flowered ; fr. fleshy and berry-like, large, bluish-purple. - S. Car to Fla. and La. Sts. sharply 4-angled. Lvs. 5 to 7" by 2 to 3", margin somewhat revolute. Pedicels of the fr. about 6" long. May - Oct.

7 G. unifldrum Mx. Glabrous; sts. caspitous, slender, many, ascending; lvs. in 4s. linear, acute; ped. axillary, solitary, bearing 2 to 4 bracts, mostly 1-flowered; fr. oblong, fleshy, smooth, purple. - Damp woods, S. Car. to Fla. and La. St straight, nearly simple, about If high, the lvs. about 1' by V, and 1-veined. Fr. smaller than in No. G. May.

8 G. trifldrum Mx. St. weak, often procumbent, smoothish, shining; lvs. in 5a and 6s, elliptic and lanceolate, acuminate-cuspidate, 1-veined, scarcely ciliate on the margin; ped. elongated, axillary, 3 (rarely 2)-flowered at the extremity, often twice di- or trichotomous; fls. pedicellate; fr. hispid with Jiooked hairs. - Moist woods, Can. and U. S. St. 1 to 3f long, slightly branched. Lvs. 1 to 2' long, us broad, often obovate. Fl. greenish white, small. Fr. whitish, with its uncinate clothing. Jl