Herbs (shrubs or trees), with round stems and branches, not aromatic. Leaves alternate, generally rough, with stiff hairs. Stipules none. Flowers seldom yellow, generally in a coiled (scorpoid) inflorescence. Sepals 5. Petals 5; united below, regular, very rarely irregular. Stamens 5, inserted in the tube. Ovary deeply 4-lobed, forming in fruit 4 separate, 1-seeded achenia in the bottom of the persistent calyx. Style 1, gynobasic, seed separable from the pericarp, exalbuminous.

Illust. in figs. 220, 372.

Genera 54, species 688, mostly natives of temperate climates in the Northern hemisphere.

Properties.-Mucilaginous and emollient plants, never poisonous. The important red dye, alkanet, is the product of Anchusa tinctoria, etc. Many are esteemed for their beauty in cultivation.

Tribes And Genera


EHRETIEae. Ovary entire, 4-celled. Sty. terminal. Fr. baccate. Shrubs.




HELIOTROPEae. Ovary entire. Style terminal. Fruit dry separating into parts, (a)

a Corolla tube cylindrical, throat open. Fruit separating into 4 parts.. .........



a Corolla tube conical, throat constricted. Fruit separating into 2 parts.........




BORRAGEae. Ovary deeply 4-lobed. Style basilar. Fruit 4, achenia. (b)

b Corolla irregularly 5-lobed. throat open, naked. Blue.........................................



b Corolla regularly 5-lobed. (c)

c Achenia unarmed, fixed by their excavated base, throat closed, (d)

d Corolla wheel-form. Anthers exserted. Blue................................



d Corolla tubular-bell-form. Style exserted. White............................



d Coroll salver-from, with the slender tube bent. Blue.......................



c Achenia unarmed, fixed by their small, fiat base. Throat open or closed, (e)

e Corolla tubular, with the lobes erect and acute. White.......



e Corolla lobes rounded, imbricated in bud. White or yellow.............



e Corolla lobes rounded, imbricate in bud. Purple, blue, large.............



e Corolla lobes rounded, convolute in bud. Blue or white, small...........



c Achenia armed with barbed prickles.-Corolla salver-form........



- Corolla funnel-form.........................



1. TOURNEFOR'TIA, L. Summer Heliotrope. (Dedicated to Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, the founder of Systematic Botany.) Calyx 5-parted, corolla salver-form, throat naked ; stamens 5, included ; style short; fruit 2-carpeled, 4-celled and 4 seeded.-Shrubs, with entire lvs. and secund spikes.

T heliotropoides Hook. Shrubby at base, with herbaceous, hairy branches, erect; lvs. oval, pubescent, obtuse, undulate on the margin; ped. terminal, 2 or 3 times dichotomous; cor. tube included, lobes obtuse, fruit globular.-The fls. are numerous, small, pale lilac, and inodorous, † Buenos Ayres.

2. HELIOTRO'PIUM, Tournef. Heliotrope. (Gr.Tribes And Genera 1302 the sun, Tribes And Genera 1303 to turn ; the flowers were said to turn with the sun.) Calyx 5parted, corolla salver-form, lobes shorter than the tube, the sinuses plicate and prominent in the bud ; anthers sessile; style short, stigma conical, the achenia cohering at base, at length separable.--Herbs or shrubs. Fls. white or purple, in unilateral, scorpoid spikes.

1 H. Europaeum L. Herb erect, pubescent; lvs. oval, obtuse at each end, petio-late, wavy; spikes lateral and terminal, single or forked; cal. lobes hirsute, obtuse, equaling the cor. tube, and also as long as the fruit.-Tribes And Genera 1304 Rocky banks, at Harper's Ferry, etc. A delicate annual 8 to 12' high. Lvs. 1 to 2' long, two-thirds as wide. Fls. small, white, in spikes several inches in length. Aug. † § Eur.

2 H. curassavicum L. Herb glabrous, procumbent at base; lvs. linear-lanceo-late, obtuse, entire, glaucous; spikes usually forked; sep. obtuse, much shorter than the fruit.-Tribes And Genera 1305 Sandy shores, St. Louis to N. Orleans. A foot high. Lvs. 1 to 2' by 2 to 3". Fls. very small bluish. § W. Ind.

3 H. Peruvianum L. Shrubby, erect, pubescent, somewhat hoary; lvs. short-petiolate, lance-ovate, rugous; spikes numerous, aggregated, corymbous; cor. tubetwice longer than the calyx.-A pretty green-house shrub, 1 to 2f high. Lvs. serrulate, twice as long as wide. Fls. very fragrant, white or tinged With purple, † Peru.

3. HELIOPH'YTUM, DC. (Gr.Tribes And Genera 1306 the sun, Tribes And Genera 1307 a plant; from its relation to Heliotropium.) Calyx 5-parted; corolla salver-form, throat constricted, 5-rayed; anthers included; style very short; nuts 2, each 2-celled (sometimes with 2 additional empty cells).-Herbs with habit of Heliotrope.

H. Indicum DC. Herbs erect, branching, hairy; lvs. ovate, erose-serrulate, acute, base abruptly contracted into a petiole, often subcordate, rugous, very veiny; spike terminal, solitary, simple (rarely forked 1); cor. much exserted, pubescent; fr. miter-form, the two nuts divaricate, showing the 4 empty cells between.- Waste grounds, pastures, Ill., Ind. to Ga. St. furrowed, 1 to 2f high. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, or more. Spikes 2 to 6' long. Cor. blue or purple. Carpels bifid at apex. § S. Am. E. Ind.

4. ECH'IUM, Tourn. Viper's Bugloss. (Gr.Tribes And Genera 1308 a viper; from the spotted stem of some species.) Calyx 5-parted, segments subulate, erect; corolla campanulate, obliquely and unequally lobed, with a short tube and naked orifice; sligma cleft; achenia tuberculate, base flat, imperforate.-Herbs or shrubs. Fls. irregular, in spicate, panicled racemes.

E. vulgare L. St. herbaceous, rough with bristles and tubercles; cauline lvs. lanceolate, and rough with bristles; spikes lateral, hairy, deflected.-Tribes And Genera 1309 A rough plant, with large, handsome, violet-colored flowers, found in fields and waste grounds, N. States. Stem 18-20' high, round, with entire, dull green leaves, which are 2-6' long, and 1/5 as wide, lower ones petiolate, upper ones amplexi-caul Flowers in numerous, crowded, axillary, recurved spikes, appearing in June and July, § Eur.

5. BORRA'GO, Tourn. Borrage. Calyx 5-parted; corolla rotate, with acute segments; orifice crowned; filaments converging; achenia ovoid, muricate, excavated at base, inserted lengthwise into an excavated receptacle.-European herbs.

1 B. officinalis L. Lvs. ovate, alternate, the lower ones petiolate; cal. spreading ; ped. terminal, many-flowered; filaments included.- _ A common inhabitant

Tribes And Genera 1310 of the garden. The whole plant is rough with short, bristly hairs, erect, 2f high, with terminal clusters of handsome, sky-blue flowers during summer. It was formerly in high repute as a cordial. The young leaves form a good salad and pot-herb. % Eur.

2 B. orientalis. Lvs. cordate, petiolate; ped. many-flowered: fil. exserted, villous.-Tribes And Genera 1311 An ornamental garden plant, E. Eur. Stem and leaves hairy. Flowers blue, appearing in the spring months. \ (Psilostemon,DC.)