6. SYM'PHYTUM, Tourn. Comfrey. (Gr. a joining or healing; from its reputation for healing wounds.) Calyx 5-parted ; corolla tuhular-campanulate, orifice closed with 5, subulate scales, converging into a cone ; achenia smooth, ovoid fixed by an excavated base. - Oriental herbs.
S. officinale L. Hairy, branching above; lvs. extensively decurrent, the lower and radical petiolate, ovate-lanceolate, upper and floral lanceolate; sep. lanceolate, acuminate; cor. limb with 5-recurved teeth.-A large, coarse-looking mucilaginous plant, in gardens and low grounds, Mid. States. Whole plant rough with dense hairs. Stem 3-1f high, winged by the decurrent leaves, bearing terminal, revolute racemes. Corollas white, pink and red, appearing all summer. ‡ §
7. LYCOP'SIS, L. Wild Bugloss. (Gr. a wolf, and the eye; name suggested by the small blue flowers.) Calyx 5-cleft; corolla funnel-form, tube incurved, orifice closed with ovate, converging scales; achenia perforated at base, ovoid, angular.- Distinguished mainly by the curved corolla tube.
L. arvensis L. Plant hispid; lvs. lanceolate, repand-denticulate ; rac. leafy; fls-sessile; cal. shorter than the curved tube of the corolla.-A very hispid, almost bristly plant, in fields and roadsides, N. States, probably introduced. Stem erect, branching, roundish, about a foot high. Leaves 5 or 6 times as long as wide, the margin irregularly and slightly toothed. Fls. small. Calyx erect. Corolla sky-blue with white scales within. June, July. § S. Eur.
8. ONOSMO'DIUM, Mx. (From Onosma, another genus of this order, and appearance.) Calyx deeply 5-parted, with linear segments; corolla cylindrical, having a ventricous, half 5-cleft limb, with the segments converging and the orifice open ; anthers sessile, sagittate, included ; style much exserted ; achenia imperforate, whitish, shining.-
- North American. Rac. terminal, subspicate, one-sided. Fls. white.
1 O. Virginicum Alph. DC. Clothed with appressed, stiff bristles from a tubercular base; lvs. oblong, sessile, entire, acute or rather obtuse, 5-veined, cal. very bristly, lobes lance-linear; cor. hispid or nearly smooth, a third longer than the calyx, the segm. lance-subulate; anth. strongly sagittate.-Dry soils, N. Eng. to Fla. and La. Plant mostly erect, 15 to 30' high, branching, very rough. Lvs. variable, 15 to 30 ' by 5 to 9 ". Floral lvs. bractlike. Cor. 4 to 5" long. Jn.-Aug. (0. hispidum Mx.)
2 O. Carolinianum DC. Tall, clothed with long spreading, rusty-white, bristly hairs tubercled at base; lvs. lance-oblong, sessile, entire, 7-veined, acute, gradually diminished upwards ; fls. shaggy, bristly; cal. lobes lance-oblong; cor. near twice longer, limb dilated, segm. ovate, obtusish; anth. linear-oblong, cells scarcely diverging at base.-By streams, W. N. Y. to Wis., La. and Ga. St. hollow, 2 to 4f high, branched. Lvs. 2 to 3' or more long, near 1' wide. Cor. 5 to 6". Ach. large, white. May-Jl. Varies in leaves and hairiness.
β. molle. Bristles short, appressed, and on the lower surface of the oblong-ovate lvs. soft downy, except the 7 prominent, bristly veins.-Plant smaller. Lvs. approaching to ovate, acute or obtuse. (O. molle Mx.)-Chiefly S. Western.
9. LITHOSPER'MUM, L. Grammell or Gromwell. (Gr. a stone, and seed ; the seeds being hard and shining like little pebbles.) Calyx 5-parted, persistent; corolla funnel-form or salver* form ; limb 5-lobed, orifice open, or with 5 gibbous appendages, alternating with the stamens; anthers included; stigma obtuse, bifid; achenia bony, rugous or smooth, imperforate at base.-Herbaceous or suffruticous, generally with a thick, reddish root. Fls. spiked or ra-cemed, bracted, white or yellow.
§ Achenia rugous-tubercled. Corolla throat open, not appendaged....
§ Achenia smooth and white. Corolla throat appendaged.-Flowers white....
Nos. 2 - 4
1 L. arvense L. Wheat-thief. Lvs. linear-lanceolate, obtuse, hairy; cal. nearly equal to the corolla, with spreading segments; ach. rugous.- A rough, troublesome weed, in fields and waste grounds. Stem branching, erect, 12-16' high, from a fusiform root with reddish bark. Lvs. bright green, rough, sessile, 1-2' in length, with only the central vein; the lower ones obtuse and narrowed to the base; upper ones subacute. Fls. small, white, subsessile, solitary, in the axils of the upper leaves. May, Jn. § Eur.
2 L. officinale L. Erect, very branching above; lvs. lanceolate, acute, veiny; cal. nearly equal to the tube of the corolla; ach. smooth.- A rough, grayish plant, in dry, gravelly soils, N. and Mid. States. Sts. much branched, clustered, arising 1 to 2f from a white, fusiform root. Lvs. grayish green, rough on the upper side, hairy beneath, rather acute, entire, 2 to 3' by 6 to 9'. Fls. small, white, axillary, solitary, pedicellate, in recurved, leafy spikes. Achenia ovate, polished, stony, usually but 1 or 2 perfected. Jl. § Eur.
3 L. latifolilim Mx. Erect, subsimple, scabrous; lvs. ovale, sharply acuminate, tapering to the sessile base, veined, scabrous; rac. leafy, few-flowered ; sep. lance-linear, longer than the corolla, and spreading in fruit; ach. punctate with minute impressions, shining white, ovoid-turgid.--Woods and thickets, N. Y. to Ill. and Va. Sts. many from the same root, strict, 2f high. Lvs. 2 to 4' by 1 to 2', strongly veined. Nuts generally but 2, half as long as the calyx. Fls. small, white.
4 L. angustifolium. Mx. Procumbent at base, much branched, roughish and somewhat hoary with an appressed pubescence; lvs. linear, rigid, edges slightly revolule; fls. scattered, lateral; ach. roundish-ovoid, shining, but punctate with minute impressions.-Sand prairies, along rivers, Wis. (Lapham) to Ark. and westward. Plant 6 to 15' high. Lvs. 1' long. Fls. small, cor. white, scarcely longer than the calyx.