Chiefly twining or trailing herbs, sometimes parisitie, sometimes shrubby. Leaves (or scales when leafless) alternate. Flowers regular, pentamerous and 5-androus. Sepals imbricated. Corolla monopetalous, 5-plaited or lobed, convolute in bud Ovary free, 2 (rarely 3)-cellcd or falsely 4-celled, or of 2 distinct, 1-ovuled pistils. Capsule 2 to 6-seeded. Embryo large, coiled in mucilaginous albumen. (Illustr. in fig. 49, 56, 303, 321, 338, 455, 456.)
Genera 50, species 700, abundant in tropical climates, rare in cold.
Properties.-The roots of many species abound in an acrid, milky juice, which is strongly pursalive. Jalap of the shops is the product of the root of Exogonium purga, of Mexico, and of other species; seammony, of Convolvulus scammonia, native of Levant. The drastic qualities of both depend upon the presence of a peculiar resin. Other species have large farinarceous tubers. The Sweet Potato, a valuable article of food, is the product of C. Batatas, native at the South.
CUSCUTINEae. Leafless, parasitic, twining. Embryo without cotyledons
DICIIONDREae. Leafy. Ova. 2, distinct, with 2 distinct styles. South..
CONVOLVULEae. Leafy. Ovary 1. Capsule dehiscent. Cotyledons leafy, (a)
a Ovary 2-celled. Style2. Peduncle longer than leaves...............................
a Ovary 2-celled. Styles united into one. (b)
b Calyx enveloped in 2 large bracts..................................................
b Calyx naked.-Stamens exserted. Tube of the corolla slender......
- Stamens included. - Stigmas 2. liner..........................
- Stigma capitate........................
a Ovary 3-celled. Stigma capitate, granulate, not lobed..............................
a Ovary 4-celled - Stamens included. Corollas, large................................
- Stamens exserted. Corollas rather small.....................
i. QUA'MOCLIT, Tourn. Cypress-vine. Sepals 5, mostly mucron-ute; corolla tubular-cylindric, with a salver-form border; stamens ex-serted ; style 1, stigma capitate, 2-lobed ; ovary 4-celled, cells 1-seeded. -Twining herbs, mostly American. (Fig. 303.)
1 Q. vulgaris Choisy. Cypress-vine. Lvs. pinnatifid to the midvein, segments linear, parallel, acuto; ped. 1-flowered; sep. ovate-lanceolate.- An exceedingly delicate vine, Penn. (Eaton) and S. States generally cultivated. Stems glabrous, very slender, twining and climbing to the height of 5-10f Fls. much smaller than those of the common morning glory, scarlet, varying to crimson and rose-color. Trained upon twine it form3 an exquisite awning. July, Aug. † § E. Ind.
2 Q. coccinea Moench. Lvs. cordate, acuminate, entire or angular at base; ped. elongated, about 5-flowered; cal awned.- S. States, rare in the Western, along rivers, frequent in gardens. Fls. very delicate, 1' long, limb spreading 9", light scarlet, nearly entire. Jn.-Aug. (Ipomaea L.)
2. BATATAS, Rumph. Sweet Potato. (The original Indian name of the common potato, transferred.) Calyx of 5 sepals; corolla cam-panulate, with a spreading limb ; stamens 5, included ; style simple; stigma capitate, 2-lobed; capsule 4-celled, 4-valved, with 4 erect seeds. -Herbs, or shrubby, chiefly American. Juice milky.
1 B. littoralis Chois. Creeping, sending out runners; lvs. smooth, petiolate, thick, sinnate, with 3 to 5 rounded lobes, or somewhat panduriform, emarginate, cordate; ped. 1-flowered, as long as the leaf; sepals ovate, abruptly acuminate: seeds tomentous.- Sand hills near the coast, S. Car. to Fla. Fls. large. Stam. much shorter than the tnbo of the yellowish white corolla. Sty. with 2 capitate stigmas. Aug.-Oct. (Convolvulus L. C. obtusilobus Mx.)
2 B. macrorhiza. Creeping or twining; lvs. cordate, entire, sinuate or lobed, tomentous-pubescent beneath; ped. 1 to 5-flowered, longer than the petioles but shorter than the leaves; sep. ovate, obtuse; seeds villous with long hairs.- Sandy soil, islands of S. Car. and Ga. (Elliott). Rt. fusiform, attaining a large size. Sts. several feet in length, pubescent. Ped. 2 to 3' long. Cor. large, purplish, white. Stam. barely included. Stig. 2, capitate. Jn.-Oct. (B. Jalapa (?) Chois. Convolvulus Ell.)
3 B. edulis Chois. Sweet Potato. Creeping, or twining; lvs. variously 3 to 5-palmate or pedate-lobed or angled, lobes acute, base cordate with a broad sinus, 5-veined, smoothish; ped. 3 to 5-flowered, as long or longer than the petioles.- Root bearing oblong, terete tubers which taper to both ends. Sts. 4 to 8f long. Lvs. 2 to 5' long, on petioles 2 to 6'. Fls. showy, rose-purple, ‡ E. India. (Convolvulus Batatas L.)-Extensively cultivated West and South for its rich, nu tritious tubers. (Fig. 56.)
3. PHAR'BITIS, Chois. Morning Glory. (German farbe, color; in reference to the brilliant flowers.) Calyx 5-sepaled; corolla cam-panulate or inclining to funnel-form; style single; stigma capitate, granulate; ovary 3 (rarely 4)-celled, cells 2-seeded.-Beautiful climbing and twining herbs, everywhere cultivated for ornament.
1 P purpurea. St. climbing and twining, retrorsely pilous; lvs. cordate, entire; fl. nodding; ped. 2-5-flowered; pedicels thick; cal. hispid.- In fields, Mid. and W. States. Stems climbing many feet. Leaves roundish, heart-shaped. Flowers large, beautiful, generally of a dark purple, sometimes blue, flesh-colored, striped, etc. A well known and favorite climber and free flower, of the easiest culture. Jn. § † (Fig. 49, 338.) (P. hispida Chois. Convolvulus L.)
2 P. Nil Chois. Morning Glory. Lvs. cordate, 3-lobed; fls. half 5-cleft; ped. shorter than the petioles, 1-3-flowered; sep. ovate, long-pointed, densely hairy below.-A very beautiful twining plant, found wild, Penn. to Flor., in fields, but best known as a garden annual. Stem and leaves somewhat hairy. Flowers large, the tube white and the border of a clear blue color (whence its specific name, Anil or Nil, indigo), drying light scarlet. It is of the easiest culture, and raised from the seed. July-Sept. †
4. IPOMŒ'A, L. False Bind-weed. (Gr. bind-weed (or perhaps ivy), and similar.) Calyx 5-sepaled ; corolla campanulato; stam. included; style 1; stigma capitate, usually 2-lobed; ovary and capsule 2-celled, cells 2-seeded.-A large genus of herbs, shrubs or trees, chiefly tropical. Our species are herbs, creeping or climbing.