Trees or shrubs, glabrous, abounding in little transparent receptacles of volatile oil, with lvs. alternate, articulated with the petiole which is frequently winged. Fls. regular, 3 - 5-merous, petals and stamens inserted on a hypogynous disk. Stamens with flat filaments, distinct or cohering in one or several sets. Ova. compounded of several united carpels. Sty. 1. Fr. a berry (orange) many-celled, pulpy, covered with a thick rind. Sds. attached to the inner angle of each carpel. Albumen, 0. Cotyledon thick. (Figs. 276, 277.)
Genera 20, species 95, nearly all natives of tropical Asia, naturalized throughout all tropical regions, and cultivated in all civilized countries for their beauty and fragrance, both of flowers and fruit.
Properties. These fruits contain free citric and malic acid, and their pulp is grateful to the taste. The rind contains an aromatic, volatile oil, which is tonic and stomachic. The rind of the lime yields the oil of Bergamot, and the flower of the orange the oil of Neroli.
CITRUS, L. (Gr. , the citron; the fruit of one of the species.)
Sepals and petals in 5s; anthers 20, or some other and higher multiple of 5, versatile, the connectile articulated to the filament; filaments dilated at base, polyadelphous; berry 9 - 18-celled.-A noble genus of trees and shrubs, all tropical, combining in its species beauty of form, with shining, evergreen foliage, odoriferous fls., fragrant and delicious fruit. The articulation of the petiole with the lamina is regarded by some botanists as indicating a reduced compound leaf.
1 C. Limonum L. Lemon Tree. Petioles somewhat winged; sta. 35; fr. oblong-spheroid, with a thin rind and very acid pulp. - A tree about 15f in hight, which, when laden with its golden fruit suspended among its dark green leaves, makes a most beautiful appearance. It is a native of tropical regions, and is easily cultivated in the temperate climates if protected during winter. †
2 C. Aurantium L. Sweet Orange Tree. Petiole winged; leaf slightly oblong, acute, crenulate; sta. 20; fr. globous, with & thin rind and sweet pulp.- A middle-sized evergreen tree, with a greenish brown bark. When filled with its large. round, golden fruit (sometimes to the number of 20,000, Lindley), it is one of the most beautiful objects in nature. The cultivation of the orange in Fla. and S. Ga. has been recently checked by severe frosts. It is easily raised in the green house at the North. † § W. Indies.
3 C. decumana L. Shaddock Tree. Petioles broadly winged; obtuse, emarginate; fr. very large, with a thick rind. - A tree 15f in hight. Wings of the petioles as broad as the leaves. Fr. grows to the diam. of 7 - 8', weighs 14 pounds, and is of a yellowish-green color. †
4 C. Limeta L. Lime Tree. Petioles not at all winged; 1f. ovate-orbicular, serrate; stam. 30; fr. globous, with a sweet pulp. and a protuberance at top. This, like most other species, is native of Asia. Hight above 8f, with a crooked trunk, diffuse branches with prickles. Berry 1 1/2' diam., of a greenish-yellow, shining surface. †
5 C. Medica L. Citron Tree. Petioles not at all winged; 1f. oblong, acute; stam. 40; fr. oblong-spheroid, rugous, with an acid pulp. - Commonly about 8f high. Fr. 6' in length, fragrant, †
Obs. In a splendid work entitled "The Natural History of Oranges," written in French by Risso, of Nice, in 1818, there are described 109 varieties, and 105 of them figured. They are arranged as sweet oranges. of which there are described 42 varieties; bitter and sour oranges, 32; Bergamots, 5; Limes, 8; Shaddocks, 6; Lumes, 12; Lemons, 46; Citrons, 17. The most successful methods of cultivation are by cuttings.