3 T. clavatum, D C. Fls. perfect; lvs. cauline: panicle corymbous: ach. stiped. - N. Car. (Curtis). Plant very smoooth, 2f or more in hight Lvs. biteruate, on petioles 1' in length; lfts. roundish, obtusely 3 - 5-lobed, glaucous beneath. Panicles loose and capillary. Fruit inflated, obovate, striate, each as long as its slender stipe, acute. Style 0.
4 T. alpinum L. Lvs. mostly radical: fls. in a simple raceme: ach. ovate, sessile. - Can. and northward. Plant about 6' high, glabrous. Lvs. petiolate, biternate; lfts. roundish, about 4' diam., crenately toothed. Stems few-leaved, terminating in a cluster of a few nodding flowers on slender pedicels. Filaments filiform. Style 0.
5. TRAUTVETTERIA, Fisch. and Meyer. (Named in honor of Trautvetter, a German botanist.) Sepals 4 - 5, colored, caducous; petals 0; stamens ∞, petaloid; carpels 15 - 20, membranous and indehiscent, angular, 1-seeded, tipped with the short, hooked style. - Lvs. palmately lobed. Fls. corymbous.
T. palmata Fisch and Meyer. A coarse plant of the prairies and woods, Va. to Can., W. to Ill. Stem slender, 2 - 5f high, terete, smooth, terminating in a large branching corymb. Radical lvs. 4 - 6' wide by 3 - 5' long, rugoua and reticulate-veined, 5 - 9 lobed, long-stalked; stem lvs. few, remote, the upper sessile. Fls. many, white. Sepals orbicular, concave, falling as soon as expanding. Jl, Aug. (Cimicifuga, Hook.)
6. ADONIS, L. Pheasant's-Eye. (Feigned to have sprung from the blood of Adonis when wounded by the boar.) Sepals 5, appressed; petals 5 - 15, with a naked (scaleless) claw. Achenia spiked, ovate and pointed with the hardened, persistent style. - Herbs with dissected lvs. and terminal, solitary, red or yellow flowers.
1 A. autumnalis L. Petals 5 - 8 (crimson), concave and connivent. - A fine hardy annual, from Europe, naturalized in some parts of the country. Stem thick, branching, 1f high. Lvs. pinnately parted, with numerous linear segments. Fls. 1 1/2' diam. Carpels crowned with a very short style, and collected into an ovate or sub-cylindric head. Seeds to be sown in autumn in a light soil.
2 A. vernalis L. Petals 10 - 12 (yellow), oblong, spreading. - A handsome perennial, from Europe. Stem branching, 1 f. high. Lvs. sessile, multifid.
7. RANUNCULUS, L. Crowfoot. Buttercups. Fig. 24, 241, 242, 294, 369, 458, 386,415. (Lat. rana, a frog; from the aquatic habitat of some species.) Calyx of 5 ovate sepals; coiolla of 5 roundish, shining petals, each with a nectariferous scale (Fig. 294) or pore at the base inside; filaments ∞; achenia ∞, flattened, pointed, crowded in a roundish or oblong head. - Herbs, mostly with alternate leaves and yellow flowers.
§| Seeds (carpels) rough with points or prickles..........................................
§ Seeds (carpels) smooth and even, or merely rugous (a).
a Leaves in fine, numerous, thread-like divisions, under water............................
.. .Nos. 3, 4
a Leaves all undivided and simple. - Stems creeping...........................
- Stems erect...............................................
a Root-lvs. simply crenate or lobed, stem leaves divided.................................
Nos. 10, 11
a Leaves all more or less divided, not submersed (b)......................................
b Sepals spreading in flower, shorter than the showy petals.............................
Nos. 12 - 14
b Sepals reflexed in flower. - Head of carpels oblong...............................
.Nos. 15, 16
- Heads of carpels globous...................................
.Nos. 17, 18
1 R. muricatus L. Glabrous; carpels aculeate, strongly margined, and ending in a stout, ensiform, recurved beak. Va. to La. Stem branched, erect, 1f high. Lvs. roundish (1 1/2' diam.), cordate, 3-lobed, lobes coarsely crenate-toothed, all similar, and on petioles 1 - 5' long. Bracts close to the flower, simple. Fls. small, few. Pet. obovate, yellow. Carpels large (3" long, including beak). §Eur.
2 R. parviflorus L. Villous; carpels roundish, granulated, tipped with a very short beak. - Va. to La. Stem 6 - 12' high, slender, branched. Lvs. all petiolate, small, roundish (9 - 16" diam.), cordate, 3-lobed or parted, the segments acutely toothed. Fls. quite small, the yellow petals not exceeding the calyx. Seeds scarcely 1" in length, in a globular head. § Eur.
3 R. aquatilia L. β capillaceus. Lvs. all filiformly dissected; pet. white; carpels transversely rugous. - Ponds and sluggish streams, Arctic Am. to S. Car., W. to Rocky Mts. The whole plant is submerged except the flowers, and perhaps a few of the upper leaves. Stem 1 - 2f or more in length, slender, weak, round, smooth, jointed. Leaves divided dichotomously into numerous hair-like segments, in outline roundish and 1/2 - 1' diam. Ped. thick, 1 - 1 1/2' long. Fls. smaller than in R. acris. Petals rather narrow, white, except the yellow claws. H., Aug.
4 R. multifidus Ph. Floating; st. long; submerged lvs., cleft into numerous capillary segments, emersed ones reniform, 3 - 5 parted, the lobes variously divided; sep. reflexed, 1/2 as long as the yellow petals; carpels smooth, with a short, straight, ensiform style; hds. globous. - Ponds, sluggish streams, and muddy places, Can., U. S Stem 1 - 2f or more in length, fistulous. Lvs. pentangular in outline, 2/3 - 1 1/2' diam., those below more finely divided; petioles 1/2 - 2' in length. Fls. bright yellow, emerging on forked, striate peduncles. May, Jn.
β. fluviatilis. Lvs. all capillaceous-multifid; fls. as large as in R. acris. (R lacustris Beck.)
5 R. Cymbalaria Ph. St. filiform, creeping, rooting; lvs. reniform-cordate, cre-nate-dentale; ped. solitary, mostly 2-flowered; petals spatulate; ach. oblong.- In salt marshes on the sea-coast, and at Salina, N. Y Stem round, sending out runners from the joints. Lvs. radical, 1/2 - 1' diam. on long petioles. Scapes 2 - 6' high, each with 2 small, bright-yellow flowers, and as many obtuse bracts. Nectary naked (not covered by a scale). Jn.
6 R reptans L. Stem creeping, geniculate, rooting; nodes 1-flowered; lvs. linear, entire, remote. - A slender species, creeping on river banks and other wet places, Can., N. H., W. to Oregan. Stem 6 - 8' long, round, rooting at the joints. Lvs. fleshy, 6 - 12" in length, mostly very narrow and acute at each end. Fls. small (3 - 4" wide). Sepals spreading, obtuse. Petals obovate, yellow, fading to white. Nectary covered by a scale. Ach. very smooth. Jl. (R. filiformis Mx.)
β. ovalis. Lvs. oval and lanceolate; pet. 5 - 10.
7 R. Flammula L. Spearwort. Stem declinate at base, erect; lvs. all lance-shaped, on sheathing petioles. - An aquatic herb, growing in ditches and swamps, Can. to N. Car., W. to Ill. Root fibrous. Stem 6 - 18' long, more or less decumbent, succulent. Lvs. 3 - 6' in length, entire, or with a few teeth, thickened at the acute summit. Fls. solitary, of a golden yellow, on peduncles 1/2 as long as the leaves. Fruit roundish, twice longer than its beak, in a globular head. Jn., Aug. (R. alismaefolius Geyer.)