7 A. cylindrica Gray. Invol. long-petioled; peduncles all naked; head of carpels cylindrical. - Dry soils, Mass., N. H. to Iowa. Plant silky pubescent, 1 - 2f high. Lvs. 2 - 3' wide, 3-parted; segm. cuneate, deeply gash-lobed and cut-toothed, petioles 3 - 6' long; ped. 3 - 6, 1-flowered, 6 - 10' long, umbellate, sometimes one or two with involucles; sep. 5, silky, greenish-white, obtuse; head3 of fruit 1 1/4' long. May.

8 A. nemorosa (and quiuquefolia) L. Low, smooth, l-flowered; invol. petiolate. - A common and interesting little plant, 6 - 9' high, found in old woods, hedges, and " in open fields. Radical leaf 1, ternate, segm. cleft or lobed. Invol. of 3 petiolate leaves, placed in a whorl near the top of the stem, its bracts cut-toothed and lobed, the lateral segments cleft, sometimes quite to the base, so as to render the leaf quinate. At the top of the stem is a single white flower, purplish outside. Apr., May.

9 A. Pennsylvanica L. Hairy: invol sessile: ped. one, at length 2 or 3, lateral ones involucellate. - Shores and wet prairies, Can. to Penn. W. to Ind. and Wis. Stem 12 to 20' high; lvs. large, veiny, those of the root 5-parted, segm. cuneate, 3-lobed, pointed. Lvs. of the involucre 3-parted, acuminate-lobed and toothed. First flower on a naked stalk. From its base arise two branches, each 2-leaved (involuceled) and 1-flowered. Sep. 5, obovate, large, white. Jn. - Aug.

10 A. narcissiflora L. Villous; involucre sessile; achenia flattened. - In Canada and northward. Plant clothed with long silky hairs. Lvs. palmately 3 - 5-parted, segm. cuneiform, incisely many cleft into linear acute lobes. Invol. somewhat similar, the sessile leaflets 3 - 5-cleft. Flowers several, umbelate, white, on leafless stalks.

11 A. thalictroides L. Rue Anemone. (Fig. 361.) Glabrous, low; invol. petiolate: ach. grooved. - In woods, Can. to Ga., W. to Iowa, common. A fine little plant of early spring. Root consisting of several oblong tubers; lvs. biter-nate or triternate, the common petiole 2 - 4' long. Lfts. like those of the invol. 6 - 12" long, 2/3 as wide, oval, subcordate, 3-lobed. Invol. of two ternate leaves appearing as a whorl of 6 petiolulate lfts. Flowers several white varying to pale purple. Hight 6 - 8'. Apr., May.† (Thalictrum anemonoides Mx.)

12 A. coronaria L. Lvs. ternate, with multifid segments and linear mucronate lobes: sep. 6, oval, close. - From Levant. A hardy, flowering plant, with large single or double variegated flowers. May.

13 A. hortensis L Lvs. 3-parted, with crenate, cut-dentatel obes: invol. sessile, of oblong, entire or cut leaflets. Sep. 10 - 12, oblong. - From Italy. A fine garden species, with double and semi-double varieties of red, white, and blue flowers. May.†

Observation. - Many other foreign species are ornamental, and perhaps rarely cultivated. They all prefer a fresh, loamy soil.

3. HEPATICA, Dill. Liverwort. Fig. 132, 190. (Gr.Ranunculaceae Crowfoots Part 3 159 of the liver; from the farcied resemblance of the leaf.) Involucre of 3 entire, ovate, obtuse bracts, resembling a calyx, situated a little below the flower; calyx of 5 - 9 petaloid sepals, disposed in 2 or 3 rows; corolla 0; achenia awnless.

H. triloba Chaix (and acutiloba DC). Lvs. trilobate, the lobes entire; scape

1-flowered, hairy. - Woods, Can. to Ga., and Wise. This little plant is one of the earliest harbingers of spring, often putting forth its neat and elegant flowers in the neighborhood of some lingering snow bank. The root consists of numerous and strong fibers. Lvs. all radical, on long, hairy petioles, smooth, evergreen, coriaceous, divided into three lobes, which suggest all its names. Fls on scapes

3 - 4' long, solitary, numerous, generally blue, but frequently in varieties of white and flesh color. In cultivation they become double. In respect to the form of leaves there are two varieties: a. obtusa, lobes obtuse, rounded. - Prefers the south side of hills.

β. acuta, lobes acute. - Prefers the north side of hills. (H. acutiloba, D. C.)

4. THALICTRUM, Tourn. Meadow Rue. (Said to be fromRanunculaceae Crowfoots Part 3 160 to be green.) Calyx colored, of 4 - 5 roundish, concave, caducous sepals; corolla 0; filaments ∞, compressed, dilated upward, longer than the calyx; ovaries numerous (4 - 15); achenia sessile or stipitate, ribbed or inflated, pointed with the stigma or short style.- Lvs. ternately compounded, with stalked leaflets. Fls. paniculate, often or

* Carpels mostly 10 or 12, beaked with a style...............................

Nos. 1, 2

* Carpels few (4 - 6), with sessile stigmas.......................................

Nos. 3, 4

1 T. dioicum L.Ranunculaceae Crowfoots Part 3 164 ; stem leaves on a short common petiole; lfts. obtusely 5-7 lobed; ach. about 8, sessile. - Hilly woods, Brit. Am. to Ga. and Ala. A slender and delicate plant, glabrous and glaucous, 1 - 2f high. Lvs. ternately decompound, the cauline on petioles 1 - 3' long, shortening upward. Lfts. roundish, about 3/4' diameter, with 5 - 7 obtuse lobes, paler beneath. Filaments filiform, longer than the 5 obtuse sepals. The slender terminal panicle is often purplish, generally pale green. Fruit strongly ribbed and distinctly pointed. May.

2 T. cornuti L.Ranunculaceae Crowfoots Part 3 165 ; stem lvs. all sessile (no common petiole); lfts. roundish obovate, rather acutely 3-lobed; ach. about 12, substipitate, ribbed. - Common in meadows. Stem 3 - 4f high, smooth, hollow, jointed, furrowed Lvs. resembling those of the columbine (Aquilegia), green above, smooth, several times compounded. Lfts. 1-2' long, § as wide. Panicles large and diffuse. Jn., Jl.

β. purpurascens. Stems purplish, tall; stem-lvs. sessile or the lower with short stalks; fls. purplish-green, with drooping capillary fil.; lfts. thickish, the sides revolute. Dry hills, N. H. to Ga. (T. purpurascens L.)