4 C. apiifolia Mx. Pubescent, thorny; lvs. deltoid, truncate at base, deeply 5 to 7-cul-lobed, lobes incisely toothed at end, petiole slender, often longer than the blade; sep. lanceolate; sty. 2 or 3; fr. small, red. - In woods, Va. to Fla. and La. A handsome shrub, 8 to 12f high, with rather short, stout thorns, and large, white or roseate fls. Lvs. small, broader (10 to 18") than long, fascicled, numerous. Corymb3 10 to 12-flowered. Fr. ovaL about 3" long. Mar., Apr.
5 C. Oxycantha L. Hawthorn. English Thorn. Lvs. obovale, obtuse, 3 to 5-lobed, serrate, smoothish, shining above, wedge-shaped at base: corymbs glabrous; sty. 1 to 3; fr. ovoid, small. - Hedges, etc, sparingly naturalized. Shrub very branching, 8 to 18f high. Thorns slender, very sharp, axillary. Lvs. 1 1/2 to 2' long, nearly as wide, deeply lobed; petioles 1/2 to 1' long. Fls. white. varying to roseate. Fr. 2 to 3" diam., usually 1-seeded, purple. Used for hedges (extensively in Europe). There are several varieties. § †
6 C. coccinea L. White Thorn. Lvs. broadly ovate, acutely serrate, 1 to 9-lobed (lobes shallow), thin and smooth, abrupt at base; petioles long, slender, and (with the calyx) smooth and subglandular; sty. 3 to 5. - A thorny shrub or small tree, 10 to 20f high, in thickets by streams, etc, Can. and U. S. Branches crooked and spreading, branchlets and thorns whitish. Thorns stout, rigid, sharp, a little recurved, about 1 1/2' long. Lvs. 1 1/2 to 2 1/2' long, 3/4 as wide, lobed, or (rather) coarsely, doubly acuminate-serrate. Petioles very slender, 1/2 as long as the lamina. Fls. white, in paniculate, lateral corymbs of about 12. Fr. 5" diam., bright purple, eatable in Sept. Fls. May.
7 C. cordata Ait. Washington Thorn. Thorny, glabrous and glandless; lvs. cordate-ovate, somewhat deltoid, incisely and often deeply 3 to 5-lobed, serrate, with long and slender petioles; sep. short; sty. 5; fr. small, globous-depressed. - Banks and streams, Va. to Ga., cultivated in the Middle States for hedgerows. Shrub 15 to 20f high, the branches with very sharp and slender thorns 2 to 3 long. Lvs. about 2 by 1 J', the upper rather cuneate at base, the others truncate or heart-shaped. Pomes 1/4' diam., numerous, red. Jn. § ‡ elliptica Ait.) 12. C. flava Ait. Summer Haw. Glabrous; thorns straight or arcuate; lvs. membranous, rhombic-obovate, attenuate into a glandular petiole, incised, glandular-toothed and slightly lobed above; corymbs 1 (often 2 or 3-flowered, glabrous; fls. large; sly. 4 or 5; fr. large, pear-shaped, yellowish. - In dry, shady places, Va. to Fla. Tree 15 to 25f high. Lvs. when mature, 2 to 3' long; Fr. 9" long, not well-flavored. Bracts and sepals as well as the petioles glandular. Apr., May.
8 C. Crua-galli L. Cock-spur Thorn. Glabrous; lvs. obovate-cuneiform, or ob-lanceolate, tapering to a short petiole, serrate, coriaceous, shining above; spines very long; corymbs glabrous; sep. lanceolate, subserrate; sty. 1 (2 or 3).- Hedges and thickets, Can. and U. S. Shrub 10 to 20f high, much branched. Thorns 2 to 3' long, straight, sharp and rather slender. Lvs. 1 to 2 1/2' long, a third as wide, tapering and entire at base, mostly obtuse at apex; petioles 1 to 5 long. Fls. white, fragrant, in corymbs of about 15, on very short, lateral branchlets. Fr. pyriform, dull red, 2 to 3" diam., persistent during winter, unless eaten by birds. Jn. - Varies with the lvs. somewhat oblong or oval.
9 C. spathulata Mx. Glabrous and glandless; lvs. small, coriaceous, shining, oblong-spatulate, attenuated to the subsessile base, crenate above, sometimes lobed; corymbs numerous, lateral, 20 to 25-flowered: sepals very short; fr. very small, scarlet. - Va. to Fla. and Tex. A handsome shrub 10 to 15f" high, profusely flowering. Lvs. mostly 1' in length, much inclined to vary, those on the barren shoots much larger, becoming rhomboidal and lobod. Fr. 2 to 3" diam. Spines few and small. Fls. small, white. Apr., May.
10 C. aestivalis Torr. & Gr. Apple Haw. Fls. just before the elliptical, repand. short-petioled lvs., which, when young, are glandular at edge, and clothed with a rusty tomentum, at length glabrous above; corymbs glabrous, 2 to 5-flowered; cal. segm. short, triangular, glandless; fr. quite large (8 to 9'), globular, red.- In the edges of ponds and rivers, S. Car. to Fla. and La. (Hale). Tree much branched, 20 to 30f high. Fr. ripe in May, juicy, pleasant flavored, and much used. Fls. in Feb., Mar. (Mespilus aestivalis Walt.)
11 C parviflora Ait. Thorns straight and slender; lvs. coriaceous, pubescent, cuneate-obovate, subsessile, crenate-serrato; fls. subsolitary , cal. with the pedicels and branchlets villous-iomenious; sep. incised, leafy, as long as the pet.; sty. 5; fr. large, roundish-obovoid, with 5 bony, 1-seeded nuts. - Sandy woods, N. J. and Southern States. A much branched shrub, 4 to 7f high. Lvs. 1 to 2' by 1/8 to J', the upper surface shining and nearly glabrous when old. Fr. greenish-yellow, near 1/2' diam., eatable when ripe. Apr., May.
β. pubescens. Shrubs somewhat larger, with larger, roundish, less downy lvs.; petals rather longer than the calyx. Spines very slender. - Ga. (G.
13 C. viridis L. Glabrous; thorns few and short; lvs. thin, roundish or oval, acute at each end, sharply and doubly toothed above; petioles glandless (always?); corymbs 3 to 6-flowered; fls. rather large, the bracts very glandular; sep. subulate; sly. 2 or 3 (rarely 5?); fr. large, globular, red, tinged with yellow. - Iowa (Cousens) to Fla. Shrubs 12 to 18f high. Lvs. 1 to 2' long, varying from elliptic-ovate to deltoid-ovate (C. populifolia Ell.) or even cordate, sometimes slightly lobed, the petioles slender, often as long as the leaf. Fr. 4" diam., purplish, eatable. Apr., May. (C. coecinea β. Torr. & Gr.)
14 C. berberifolia Torr. & Gr., with coriaceous, oblong-cuneiform lvs. and (in Sept.) large (6" diam.), deep blue pomes sent from Louisburg, La. by Dr. Hale, is a doubtful member of this difficult genus.