§ 4. SCARIOSI. White-scaled Asters.
42 A. acuminatus Mx. Sit simple, flexuous, angular, branching into a corymb-ouspanicle above; lvs. broad-lanceolate, narrowed and entire at the base, sen-ate and acuminate; invol. scales lax, linear. - Mts. woods, Can., N. Eng., N. Y. Stem a foot high, rough, downy. Leaves large, unequally and remotely serrate above, and ending in a long, acuminate point. Panicle corymbous, terminal, few-flowered, nearly or quite naked. The leaves are mostly situated just below the corymb, sometimes scattered. Heads rather large, with about 15 long, white rays. Aug.
43 A. nemoralis Ait. Branches corymbed or 0; ped. 1-flowered, nearly naked, filiform ; lvs. narrowly lanceolate, acute at each end, veinless, subentive : scales very acute, loose, shorter than the disk; rays long, about 20. - A handsome plant, in swampy woods, N. H, Mass. to N. J. Bather rare. Stem slender, 10 - 20' high. Leaves numerous, 10 - 18" by 2 - 4", rarely subdentate. Heads large, few, often but one, terminating the simple axi3 or branches. Bays large, white or pale purple. Sept., Oct.
44 A. ptarmicoides T. & G. St. corymbous-fastigiate above ; lvs. linear-lanceolate, acute, rough-margined, entire, lower ones dentate, attenuated into a short petiole; rays short. - A very distinct Aster, low and leafy, found in rocky soils, by streams and lakes, Vt. (Bobbins) to Mo. Bare. Stems clustered, simple, each bearing a spreading panicle of heads, which are below the middle size, and furnished with snow-white rays. July - Sept. (Heliastrum, PC.)
45 A. flexnosus Nutt. St. branching, slender, flexuous, very smooth; lis. long and succulent, the lower ones sublanceolate-linear, upper ones subulate; branches leafy, 1-flowered; invol scales lanceolate, acuminate, appressed; rays numerous, shorter than the involucre; ach. subpubescent. - Grows in salt marshes, Mass. to Flor. The whole plant very smooth, If high, with large, purple flowers; disk yellow. Aug. - Oct.
46 A. Chapmanii Torr. So Or. Glabrous; st. strict, slender, corymbous at summit; branches filiform, 1-flowered; lvs. linear-subulate, appressed, numerous: scales in 5 or 6 series, closely imbricated; rays longer than the invot.; ach. glabrous. - Swamps, Fla. (Chapman.) A curious Aster, very slender, with largo hds., 20 to 30-rayed, spreading 2', purple.
47 A. linifolius L. Sea Aster. St. paniculate, much branched from the base; lvs.long, linear, very acute, the uppermost subulate; invol. cylindric, with subulate scales in about 3 rows; rays minute, in two series, scarcely exserted.- An annual species, found in salt marshes, Mass. to Car. St. 12 to 18' high, very smooth, thick, reddish. Lvs. smooth, sessile. The plant is very branching, with numerous small lids., almost discoid from the shortness of the rays. Aug.
48 A. subulatus Mx. Annual; slender, much branched, glabrous: branches corymbed, slender; lvs. linear-subulate, scabrous, long-linear below; scales lance-linear, acute, in 2 or 3 series; rays numerous, narrow, longer than the disk, in one row. - Damp grounds, S. Car. to Fla, Sts. 1 to 3f high. Hds. small, with about 20 blue rays longer than the disk. Sept., Oct. (A. divaricatus Nutt.)
3. exilis. Taller, with fewer branches, corymbed; hds, racemed or solitary. Rays pale purple. - Columbus, Ga. (A. exilis Ell.) Height 2 to 4f.
19. DIPLOPAP'PUS, Cass. Double-bristled Aster. (Gr. double, , pappus) Heads many-flowered ; ray-flowers abcfiit
12, ♀; disk-flowers $; involucre imbricate, scales narrow, destitute of green tips; receptacle flat, subalveolate ; pappus double, the exterior very short (about 1/2" long), interior copious, capillary; achenia compressed. - Ц Lvs. entire, alternate. Rays cyanic. Disk yellow.
§ Rays violet. Achenia silky. Bristles of the inner pappus alike......
§ Kays whitish. Some of the longer bristles clavellate.
- Ach. villous....
1 D. linariifdlius Hook. St. straight, roughish; branches 1-flowered, f.istigi-ate; scales imbricate, carinate, as long as the disk; lvs. linear, entire, 1-veined, mucronate, carinate, rough, rigid, those of the branches recurved. - A handsome species, in dry woods, along streams, U. S. and Can. Stems subsimple, purplish, about a foot high. Leaves numerous, obtuse, with a small, mucronate point, shining above. Branchlets near the top, leafy, each with one rather large and showy, violet-colored head. Aug., Sept. (Aster, L.)
2 D. umbellatus Hook. St. smooth, straight, simple; hds. numerous, in a level corymb; lvs. long, lanceolate, smooth, acuminate at each end, rough on the margin; invol. scales obtusely lanceolate; ach. pubescent in lines. - Low grounds, river banks, fields. N. Eng. to La. St. 3 to 4f high (in dry fields but 1 to 2f) purplish, channeled, branching at lop into a largo, level-topped, compound corymb. Lvs. narrow, entire, 4 to 6' in length, those of the branchlets smaller. Rays about 12, white. Disk yellow. Aug., Sept. (A. amygdalinus Mx. A. umbellatus Ait.)
3. AMYGDALINUS St. roughish above, green; branches of the corymb divaricate ; lvs. broader. - Lower and less elegant than variety a. Common.
3 D. cornifolius Less. St. smooth below, scabrous and slightly paniculate above, few-flowered; lvs. elliptical, thin, long-acuminate at both ends, entire, with scattered hairs, rough-edged, invol. scales imbricate, shorter than the disk, obtuse; ach. glabrous. - Grows in woods N. and M. States. Whole plant nearly smooth, erect, 1 to 2f high. Lvs. paler beneath, on very short sta'ks or sessile. Fls. few, large; outer scales very short. Rays about 10, white. Jl., Aug. (Aster, Muhl.)
4 D. obovatus Torr. & Gr. Cinereous-pubescent, corymbous above; lvs. oblong-obovate or elliptical, acute, sessile or the lower or short petioles, tomentous beneath; scales loose, linear-subulate, acute, in about 3 rows, downy, rusty yellow;
. ach. silky-villous. - Damp shades, S. Car. to Fla. Height 2 to 3f. Lvs. longer than the internodes (2 to 3). rarely with a few teeth. Invol. broadly obconic. Rays narrow, white, spreading 1 1/2'. Pappus rusty white. Sept., Oct. (Aster, Ell.)