41. SIL'PHIUM, L. Rosin-weed. (The ancient name of some resinous plant.) Heads many-flowered; ray-flowers numerous, in 2 or 3 rows, fertile, outer row ligulate ; disk-flowers sterile ; involucre cam-panulate, scales in several series, leafy and spreading at summit; receptacle small, flat, chaffy; achenia broad, flat, obcompressed, crowned with a 2-toothed pappus. - Ц Stout, coarse, resinous herbs. Hds. large. Fls. yellow.
* Stem nearly leafless, scape-like. Lvs. very large, alternate, mostly radical....
..Nos. 1 - 3
* Stemleafy. Leaves verticillate in whorls of 3s, rarely 4s......
.Nos. 4. 5 ß
- Leaves opposite, rarely the highest scattered..........
..Nos. 5 - 7
-Leaves alternate (the lowest opposite or verticillate or alternate).
- Leaves connate- perfoliate..................
1 S. laciniatum L. Polar Plant. Very rough, with white, hispid hairs; lvs. alternate, pinnately parted, lower petiolate, segments sinuate-lobed or entire; hds. spicate, distant; scales ovate, appendaged and squarroits at apex. - Western States to Tex., producing columns of smoke in the burning prairies by its copious resin. Stem 3 - 10f high. Lower lvs. 1 - 2f long, much divided, resembling those of some thistles. Heads 4 - 8, very large, with large, yellow rays. Jl. - Sept.
2 S. terebintbinaceum L. Prairie Burdock. St and ped. glabrous; lvs-mostly radical, ovate and ovate-oblong, cordate, dentate-serrate, obtuse, scabious, on long petioles ; hds. few, paniculate; scales roundish and oval, glabrous, rays about 20. - Prairies, Western and Southern States. Plant exuding resin. Stem 4 - 8f high, nearly naked and simple. Leaves 1 - 2f long, 7 - 16' wide. Involucre globous. Hds. 1' diam., rays 1'long. Achenia narrowly 2-winged. Jl. - Sept.
ß. pinnatifidum. Lvs. more or less deeply lobed or pinnatifid. - Prairies, etc., with the other form. (S. pinnatifldum Ell.)
3 S. compositum Mx. Glabrous throughout; st. slender, almost naked, glaucous ; lvs. radical, on long petioles, deeply sinuate-pinnatifid, the segments sinuate-lobed or toothed; hds. corymbed, on long peduncles; scales oval, obtuse; ach. roundish-obovate; rays about 10. - Barrens, N. Car. to Fla. (Feay). St. 3 to 6f high. Hds. 7" diam., about 10-rayed, rays about as long (4") as the involucre. June. - Aug.
ß. ren'iforme. Lvs. roundish or reniform, cordate, slightly sinuate-lobed or toothed. - Upper districts of Ga. and Car.
4 S. trifoHatum L. St. glabrous and often glaucous, terete or 6-sided; cauline lvs. lanceolate, acute, scabrous above, smooth below, remotely dentate, on very short petioles, verticillate in 3s or As; upper ones opposite ; hds. loosely cymose, on rather long peduncles; scales broadly ovate, rather obtuse, smooth; ach. oval, with 2 short teeth. - Dry woads and prairies, Ohio and Southern States. Stem 4 - 6f high. - Leaves 4 - 6'by 1- 2". Rays 12 - 16, expanding about 21/2'. Ach. 3 to 4" long, 2 to 3" wide. Aug., Sept.
5 S. integrifolium Mx. Scabrous; st. quadrangular, striate, simple; lvs. opposite, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, entire or slightly dentate; hds. in a close corymb ; scales squarrous; ach roundish, broadly winged, with 2 long teeth. - Western States S. to Ga. Stem very rigid, 3 - 7f high. Leaves rigid, broad and clasping at base. Heads middle-size. Rays 12 - 20. 1' in length. Ach. 4 to 5" long, 4" wide. JL, Aug.
ß. TERNATUM. St 6-sided; lvs. ternately verticillate. - Prairies, with the common form; apparently connecting this with S. trifoliatum, from which it is nevertheless distinct.
6 S. scaberrimum Ell. St. hispid; lvs. opposite, rigid, oval somewhat pointed, serrate, very roughly nispid on both sides, the lower petiolate, upper subsessile, entire; scales ciliate-serrulate, squarrous; ach. large, roundish, broadly winged, with convergent teeth. - W. Ga. to La. St. 3 - 4f high. Hds. nearly 1' diam., rays 20 or more, spreading 2'. Ach. 6" long. Aug., Sept.
7 S. laevigatum Ell. Smooth and glabrous; lvs. opposite, thick, lance-oblong, subserrate, somewhat pointed, the lower petiolate, upper sessile, with an abrupt base, highest cordate, entire; scales ovate, obtuse, ciliate-squarrous; ach. oval, narrowly winged, the teeth short, divergent. - W. Ga. and Ala. St.'2 to 3f high, somewhat 4-angled. Hds. small, corymbed, rays spreading 11/2'. Achenia 4" long. Aug., Sept.
8 S. Asteriscus L. Hispid, often hairy; st. terete, striate; lvs. mostly alternate, lanceolate, crenate-serrate, obtusish, the lower tapering to a petiole, opposite or alternate, upper sessile; scales squarrous, leafy; ach. roundish-obovate, with short divergent teeth. - Dry soils, Va. to Fla. and La., common. St. 2 to 4f high, generally purple. Lower lvs. (rarely whorled) 4 to 7' long. Hds. few, 1' broad, with 12 to 15 rays, 1' in length. Ach. 3 to 4" long. Jn. - Aug. - Varia ble, being sometimes nearly smooth, the lower lvs. sometimes sinuate-toothed, etc
ß. pumilum. Downy or tomentous, low; lvs. elliptical, obtuse, subserrate, upper entire; hds. smaller; ach. with very short teeth or almost truncate. Ga. (Feay), (S. pumilum Ph.). The teeth of th ach. are not invariable in this genus.
9 S. perfoliatum L. Cup-plaxt. St. square; lvs. large, thin, opposite, connafcc-perfoliate, ovate, coarsely toothed, narrowed towards the base; hds. in a trichot-omous cyme, on a long ped.; scales ovate, obtuse, squarrous; ach. broadly obovate, winged, emarginate. - Along streams, etc., Mich, to Tenn., plant coarse and forbidding, 4 to 7f high. Lvs. 8 to 14' by 4 to 7', the upper pairs forming a cup with their connate bases. Hds. large, with 12 to 20 rays. Ach. 6" long, Jl, Aug. (Also, S. connatum L.)
42. BERLANDI'ERA, DC. (Named for Berlandier, a botanical collector.) Heads radiate ; ray-flowers♀fertile, in one series; disk but sterile; scales in 3 series, leafy, subequal; receptacle chaffy; pales obtuse; achenia all marginal, in one row, obcompressed, wingless, obovate, more or less adherent to the inner scales of the involucre ; pappus minute.- Ц Herbs velvety-canesccnt, with alternate, cordate, petiolate lvs. and hds. with yellow rays.
1 B. tomentosa Torr. & Gr. Caulescent, whitened with a close, soft tomentum; st. simple; lvs. oblong, obtuse, crenate, petiolate, somewhat smooth and green above; hds. in small, dense corymbs. - Barrens, Ga., Fla. and La. St. 1 to 2f high. Lvs. 2 to 3' by 1', the upper and lower surfaces strongly contrasted in color. Rays 7 to 10, spreading 2'. Apr. - Aug. (Silphium Ph.)
2 B. subacaulis Nutt. Acaulescent, at length somewhat caulescent, roughish canescent; lvs. radical, lyrate or sinuate-pinnatifid, the lobes erenate-toothed: scapes elongated, bearing a single head. - Ga. and Fla. May, Jn.