99. APO'GON, Ell. (Gr. a, privative, n6yov, beard; as destitute of pappus.) Heads radiant; involucre scales ovate, acuminate, about 8, in 2 rows; receptacle naked; achenia glabrous, oval, longitudinally 12-striate; pappus 0. - (1) Herbs glabrous and glaucous, branched from the base. Lvs. alternate, lanceolate. Hds. small, yellow.
A. humilis Ell S. Car. to Fla. and La. A small, slender, smooth plant, common in sandy soils. Sta 3 to 12' high, trichotomously branched above. Lvs. varying from lance-linear to linear, and from entire to lyrate-lobed, the radical tapering to a petiole. Hds. few, small, the fls. spreading about 3". Mar. - Jn. (A. lyratum Nutt. A. gracilis DC.)
100. CICHO'RIUM, Tourn. Succory. (The Egyptian name cki-Jcouryeh, whence Gr. , and Eng. succory.) Involucre double, the outer of 5 leafy scales, the inner of about 8 linear ones; receptacle chafty; pappus scaly ; achenia not rostrate, obscurely 5-sided. - Oriental herbs with bright blue fls., about 20 in a head.
1 C. intybus L. Fls. in pairs, axillary, sessile; lower lvs. runcinate. - Ц Plant 2 - 3f high, with large, showy, sky-blue flowers, in grass fields, by roadsides, common in many localities. Stem round, with few long branches, rough. The upper leaves become cordate acuminate, sessile, inconspicuous, only the radical ones runcinate. The flowers are 1 - 2' diam., and placed rather remote on the long, nakedish branches. Corollas flat, 5-toothed. The root is used in France as a substitute for coffee. July - Sept. § Eur.
2 C. Endivia L. Endive. Ped. axillary, in pairs, one of them elongated and 1-headed, the other very short, about 4-headed; hds. capitate. - A hardy 'annual, esteemed and cultivated for salad. Also a remedy for jaundice, † E. Indies.
iOl. KRIG'IA, Schreb. Dwarf Dandelion. (To Dr. Daniel Krieg, a German botanist who traveled in this country.) Involucre many-leaved, nearly simple, equal; receptacle naked ; achenia turbinate, stri-ate, 5-angled; pappus double, consisting of 5 broad, membranous scales alternating with as many slender, scabrous bristles. - (1) Acaulescent herbs. Hds. solitary, with 20 to 30 yellow fls.
1 K. Virginica Willd. Early radical, lvs. round-spatulate, subentire, the later lvs. lance-oblong, angular-toothed, or lyrate-pinniatifid; heads solitary, on scapes finally longer than the leaves, glabrous. - Dry, sandy soils, Can. to Ga. Leaves all radical. Scapes 2 - 10' high, bearing each a small head of deep yellow flowers. Late flowering specimens show many scapes branched from the base. (K. dicho-toina Nutt.) May - Aug.
2 K. Caroliniana Nutt. Lvs. lyrate-pinnatifid, with irregular, oval or angular segments, the terminal one roundish and largest, primary lvs. linear-lanceolate, few-toothed or entire, scapes always simple, solitary at first, finally several 1-flowered. -Dry, sandy soils, S. Car. to Fla. and Tex. Scapes 1 to 4' high. Lvs. 1 to 2' long, rosulate. Fls. spreading 4 to 6". Feb. - May.
102. CYNTHIA, Don. (One of the names of Diana; fancifully applied to this genus.) Involucre nearly simple, of equal, narrow scales; receptacle flat, alveolate; pappus double, the outer minute, scaly, inner copious, capillary ; acbenia short. - Ц Lvs. alternate or all radical. hds, with 15 to 20 yellow flowers.
1 C. Virginica Don. St. few-leaved, branched above; lvs. oval and lance-oval, entire or remotely toothed, rarely sinuate-pinnatifid, the radical on winged petioles, cauline amplexicaul, entire. - In barrens and dry soils, Western N. Y. to I11. smooth and glaucous. St. 1 to 2f high, often dichotomously divided, with 1 to 2 clasping leaves at the forks. Radical lvs. 3 to 5' long. Hds. terminal on the bracteate and subumbellate peduncles, with deep yellow flowers. Scales united at base in a somewhat double series. May - Jl. (Krigia, Nutt.)
2 C. Dandelion DC. Acaulescenl; scapes leafless, simple, 1 - flowered lvs. elongated, lance-linear, entire or remotely toothed, rarely pinnatifid, the primary lvs. oblong-spatulate. - Low grounds, Md. to Ga. and Tex. Scapes 6 to 18' high, several from the same root. Lvs. some of them nearly as long as the scapes, more generally entire; when pinnatifid, the lobes are 2 or 3 on each side, triangular. A variety in the mountainous districts produces at length a short, decumbent stem. (Hyosiris montana Mx. C. lyrata Nutt.)
103. LEON'TODON, L. Autumnal Hawkbit. (Gr. , a lion, , a tooth ; in reference to the toothed leaves.) Involucre imbricate, the outer scales very short; receptacle naked ; pappus plumous, persistent on the somewhat rostrate achenia. - Acaulescent herbs with yellow fls., many in a head. (Apargia, Willd.)
L. autumnalis L. Scape branching; ped. scaly, lvs. lanceolate, dentate-pinnat-ifid, smoothish. - Common in the eastern parts of N. Eng., grass lauds and roadsides. Fls. simulating the dandelion. Rt. large, abrupt, scape round, striate, hollow, decumbent at base, 6 to 18' high, with a few branches and scattered scales. Lvs. spreading, 6' long, with deep, round sinuses, and covered with remote hairs, hds. 1'diam. Jl. - Nov. § Eur.
104. TRAG0P0G0N, L. Vegetable Oyster. (Gr. , a goat, , a beard ; in allusion to the tawny, showy pappus.) Involucre simple, of many leaves; receptacle naked; pappus plumous, achenia longitudinally striate, contracted into a long, filiform beak. - (2) European herbs, with long, linear, grass-like lvs.
T. porrifolius L. Involucre much longer than the corolla; lvs. long, linear,
. undivided, straight; ped. thickened upwards. St. 3 to 4f high. Fls. terminal, solitary, large, bluish purple. Cultivated in gardens for the root, which is long, tapering and nutritious. When properly prepared it has a mild, sweetish taste, which has been compared to that of the oyster. in W. N. Y.