105. HIERA'CIUM, Tourn. Hawkweeb. (Gr. , a hawk; supposed to strengthen the vision of birds of prey.) Involucre more or less imbricated, ovoid, many-flowered; scales very unequal; achenia not rostrate ; pappus a single row of copious, tawny, fragile bristles.- Ц Lvs. alternate, entire or toothed.
* Heads 40 to 50- flowered. Involucre more or less imbricated......
Nos. 1, 2
* Heads 12 to 30-flowered. Involucre simple. Achenia contracted at the top.....
- Achenia not contracted upwards..
1 H. Canadense Mx. St. erect, subvillous, leafy, many-flowered; lvs. sessile, lanceolate or oblong-ovate, acute, divaricately and acutely dentate, the upper ones somewhat amplexicaul, with an obtuse base; panicles axillary and terminal, corymbous, downy; invol. strongly imbricated. - In open dry or rocky woods, N.
Eng. to Wis. and Can. Stem stout, 1 - 2f high, more or less pubescent, the peduncles downy but not glandular. Leaves somewhat pubescent or hairy. Heads large and showy, yellow Involucre sometimes with a few glandular hairs. Aug. (H. Kalmii Spreng.)
2 H. scabrum Mx. St. leafy, scabrous and hispid; lvs. elliptic-obovate, scabrous and hirsute, entire or the lower slightly dentaie; ped. thick, and with the invol. densely glandular-hispid; hds. 40 - 50-flowered. - Dry hills, borders of woodsy Can. to Oar. and Ky. Stem 1 - 3f high, round, striate, rather stout. Lower leaves petiolate, upper sessile, subacute, often purplish as well as the stem. Heads large, with yellow flowers. Achenia obtuse at apex, bright red. Aug.
3 H. longipilum Torr. Plant densely pilous with long, straight, ascending, bristly hairs; st. strict, simple, smoothish and nearly leafless above; lvs. crowded on the lower part of the stem, oblong-lanceolate, attenuated at the base, entire; hds. glandular-tomentous or hispid, 20 - 30-flowercd, in a small, terminal panicle.- Barrens and prairies, W. States. Plant 1 - 2f high, remarkable for the long (6") brownish hairs with which the lower part is thickly clothed. July - Sept.
4. H. Gronovii L. St. leafy, hirsute, paniculate; invol. and pedicels glandular-pilous; radical lvs. obovate or oblanceolate, entire, or denticulate, strigous, the midvein beneath very villous; upper ones oblong, closely sessile, ach. 20 to 30, contracted above. - Dry hills, Can. and U. S. Stem 1 to 3f, furnished with a few leaves below, naked above and bearing a narrow, elongated panicle. Lower leavea tapering into a long stalk. Flowers yellow, on glandular, slender pedicels. Achenia tapering upwards from the middle, but not rostrate. Aug., Sept.
5 H. venosum L. Scape or st. naked or with a single leaf, smooth, paniculate; lvs. obovate, somewhat acute, entire, a little hairy above, nearly glabrous beneath, eiliate on the margin, veins colored; invol. glabrous, about 20-flowered ; ach. linear. - In woods, etc, N. Eng. to W. States. Stem 1 - 2f high, dark brown, slender. Paniole diffuse, several times dichotomous, corymbous. Heads rather large, on slender pedicels, with bright yellow flowers. Jl., Aug.
6 H. paniculatum L. St. slender, leafy, diffusely paniculate, whitish pubescent below; lvs. lanceolate, glabrous, membranaceous, acute, with remote spreading teeth, or entire; panicle diffuse; ped. very slender; hds. 10 - 20-fiowered. - A smooth, slender plant, in damp woods, Can. to Ga. Stem 1 - 3f high, several times dichotomous. Leaves thin, 2 - 4' long. Heads small, numerous, with yellow flowers. Pedicels long and filiform, forming a very diffuse panicle. Aug.- It is not easy to determine tho exact limits of the last three species. A thorough revision of the genus will probably reduce them to one, viz., H. Gronovii.
106. CATANAN'CHE, L. (Gr. , , from necessity; it must necessarily be admired ?) Involucre imbricated, scarious ; receptacle paleaceous ; pappus paleaceous, 5-leavcd; pales awned. - (1) Oriental herbs, with alternate, lanceolate lvs.
C. ccerdlea L. Lvs. linear lanceolate, villous, somewhat bipinnatifid at base; lower scales of the involucre ovate, mucronate. - From S. Europe. A handsome annual, 2 to 3f high. lids, solitary, on long peduncles, with blue spreading, ligulate corollas toothed at apex. J1. - Sept.†
107. NAB'ALUS, Cass. Drop Flower. (A barbarous name.) Involucre cylindric, of many linear scales in one row, calyculate with a few short, appressed scales at base ; receptacle naked ; pappus copious, capillary, brownish, 2-rowed, persistent; achenia not beaked, smooth, striate. - Erect herbs with a thick, tuberous, bitter root. Hds. 5 to 18, flowered, not yellow, although often straw-colored. (Prenanthes L.)
§ Heads pendulous, glabrous. Leaves variously lobed or shaped, (a)
a Dwarf species (6 to 10') native of high mountains.....
a Tall (2 to 5f high). - Hds .5 to 6 flowered...............
- Hds. 8 to 12-flowered - Pappus tawny....
- Pappus straw colored........
§ Heads nodding or erect, hairy. Leaves mostly undivided, (b)
b Heads about 12- flowered. Pappus straw- color..........
b Heads about 25- flowered. Pappus tawny or dusky...........
1 N. Boottii DC. St. simple, dwarf; lower lvs. subcordate or hastate-cordate, obtuse, the middle oblong, the upper lanceolate, mostly entire ; hds. nodding, racemed; invol. 10 to 18-flowored, of 10 to 15 obtuse, proper scales calyculate at the base with lax linear scales half their length; pappus straw-color. - White Mts., N. II., and
Essex Mt., N. Y. St. 5 to 8' high, bearing the hds. in a subsimple raceme. Fls. whitish and odorous. Jl., Aug.
2 N. nanus DC. St. simple, low, smooth; lvs. on slender petioles, the lowest variously lobed or parted, the others successively deltoid-hastate, ovate and lanceolate ; hds. in small, axillary and terminal clusters, forming a short, racemous panicle: in vol. greenish-purple, of about 8 scales and 10 - 12 flowers; pappu3 dingy white. - White Mts., N. H., with No. 1, where we find it with the same sportive character of foliage as appears in other species. Stem 5 - 10' high, Heads with whitish flowers. Aug. (P. alba. ß. nana Bw.)
3 N. altfssimus Hook. St. smooth, slender, straight, paniculate above; lvs. more or less deeply 3 - 5-cleft, all petiolate, angular, denticulate and rough-edged, the lobes acuminate; hds. pendulous; invol. of 5 scales and about 5-flowered.- Tall, with cylindric, yellowish, nodding flowers, in woods, Newfoundland to N. Eng. and Ky. Stem 3 - 5f high, bearing a narrow and elongated panicle. Heads in short, axillary and terminal racemes. Aug.