β. palmata. Lvs. (cordate) all or some of them very irregularly hastate-lobed, the middle lobe largest, the earlier lvs. commonly undivided and broadly cordate. Fls. large. Plant 4 - 12' high. (V. palmata L.) - Common at the
South. y. septemloba. Lvs. (concave at base) more deeply 5 - 7-lobed, the middle lobe largest, oblanceolate, all rather succulent and strongly veined beneath; fls. very large. (V. septemloba Le Conte.) - Low, pine woods, Ga. (Pond).
Plant 5 - 12' high. A remarkable form truly, but evidently varying into β.
10 V. villosa Walt. Lvs. roundish-ovate, cordate, obtuse, flat, pubescent, obscurely crenate, sinus narrow or closed; pet. bearded; stig. beaked. - Sandy woods, middle Ga., common N. to Penn. Plant 2 - 3' high. Lvs. spreading, scarcely 1' long, the petioles longer (1 - 2'). Fls. small, bluish purple, on stalks shorter than the leaves. Mar., Apr.
11 V. sagittata Ait. Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, sagittate-cordate, subacute, often in-cisely dentate at base, serrate-crenate, smooth or slightly pubescent; pedicel longer than the leaves; lower and lateral pet. densely bearded. - On dry hills. Can. to Fla., W. to Ark. Lvs. varying from oblong-sagittate to triangular-hastate, on margined petioles. Scapes 3 to 5' long. Sep. lanceolate, acute. Pet. entire, veiny, purplish blue, white at base. Stig. rostrate, margined. Apr. - Jn.
β. ovata. Lvs. ovate, abrupt at base and decurrent on the petioles, pubescent, the upper often incisely dentate at base. (V. ovata Nutt.)-N. J., southward.
12 V. hastata Mx. Smooth; st. simple, erect, leafy above; lvs. deltoid-lanceolate or hastate, acute, dentate; stip. ovate, minute, ciliate-dentate; lower pet. dilated obscurely 3-lobed, lateral ones slightly bearded; sep. lanceolate, with a very short spur. - Pine woods, Tenn. to Fla. St. slender, 6 - 10' high. Fls. yellow, on stalks shorter than the leaves. Apr., May.
13 V. tripartita Ell. Hairy. St. simple, erect, leafy above; lvs. deeply 3-parted, lobes lanceolate, dentate; stip. lanceolate. - Upper Ga. Plant about 1f high, villous when young. Lvs. often divided to the base. Fls. yellow, streaked with purple, the stalks longer than the leaves. Mar., Apr.
14 V. pubescens Ait. Villous-pubescenl; st. erect, naked below; lvs. broad-cordate, toothed; stip. ovate, large, subdentate. - A large yellow violet, found in dry stony woods, Can. to Ga. and Mo. - St. simple, somewhat triangular and fleshy, bearing a few leaves at the top. Lvs. broad-ovate, cordate or deltoid, obscurely dentate, obtuse, on short stalks. Fl.-stalks rather shorter than leaves, with 2 subulate bracts. Lateral petals bearded, and with the upper one marked with a few brown lines. The plant varies in pubescence, sometimes even glabrous. Height very variable, 5 - 20'. May - Jn.
β. eriocarpa Nutt. Capsule densely villous. (V. eriocarpa Schw.) y. SCABRIUSCULA Torr. & Gr. St. decumbent, branching from the root, and with the smaller leaves somewhat scabrous. (V. scabriuscula Schw.)
15 V. Canadensis L. Smooth; lvs. cordate, acuminate, serrate; ped. shorter than the leaves; stip. short, entire. - A large species, found in the woods, British Am. to Car., often a foot in hight. Stem subsimple, terete, all the way leafy, with lance-ovate, membranous stipules. Lvs. acute or obtuse, the lower on very long petioles. Ped. sub-4-sided, with minute bracts. Fls. large, nearly regular. Pet. white or light blue, yellowish at base, the upper ones purplish outside and marked with blue lines inside, lateral ones boarded. Flowering all summer.
16 V. striata Ait. Smooth; st. branching, nearly erect; lvs. roundish-ovate, cordate, the upper ones somewhat acuminate, crenate-serrate; Stip. large, ciliate-dentate, oblong-lanceolate; spur one fourth as long as the corolla.-Wet grounds, U. S. and Can. St. 6-12' high, half round. Lvs. 1 - 1 1/2' wide, on petioles 1 - 2' long. Stip. conspicuous, laciniate. Ped. axillary, often much longer than the leaves. Cor. large, yellowish-white or ochroleucous, lateral petals densely bearded, lower one striate with dark purple. Stig. tubular. Jn.
17 V. Muhlenbergii Torr. St. weak, assurgent; lvs. reniform-cordate, upper ones rather acuminate; stip. lanceolate, somewhat fimbriate; spur half as long as the corolla, obtuse. - A spreading, slender species, in swamps, etc, U. S., N. to Lab. Sts. branched below, 6 - 8' long, with stipules usually cut into fringe-like serratures. Lvs. 6 - 10" diam., younger ones involute at base. Petioles longer than the leaves, and shorter than the axillary peduncles. Bracts subulate, mostly opposite, on the upper part of the stalk. Petals entire, pale purple, the lateral ones bearded. Stig. rostrate. May.
18 V. rostrata L. Smooth; st. terete, diffuse, erect; lvs. cordate, roundish, serrate, upper ones acute; stip. lanceolate, deeply fringed; petals bearded; spur longer than the corolla. - A common violet in moist woods, Can. to Ky., well characterized by its long, straight, linear, obtuse nectary, which renders the largo flowers similar to those of the larkspur. St. 6 - 8' high, branching below. Petioles much longer than the leaves. Stip. almost pinnatifid. Ped. slender, very long, axillary. Fls. pale blue. May.
19 V. tricolor L. Pansy, Heartsease. St. angular, diffusely branched; lvs. oblong-ovate, lower ones ovate-cordate, deeply crenate; stip. as large as the leaves; spur short, thick. - Gardens, where its pretty flowers are earliest in spring and latest in autumn. Fls. variable in size, often 1' broad, the 2 upper (lower) petals purple, the two lateral white and with the lower striate, all yellow at base.
β. arvensis DC. Annual. More slender and less branched; upper lvs. ovate-spatulate; petals scarcely twice longer than the calyx, yellowish blue, spotted with purple. (V. arvensis Ell.) - This is, doubtless, a mere variety escaped from gardens, in rocky hills, N. Y. to Ga. Not common. Sts. 3-6-10' long. May.
20 V. grandiflora L. St. 3-cornered, simple, procumbent; lvs. ovate-oblong, crenate, shorter than the peduncles; stip. much smaller than the leaves; fls. large.- Native of Switzerland. A beautiful species, with very large flowers (1 - 2' diam.); all the petals alike are deep purple. Whole plant smooth, 6 - 12' long. Stip. 1/2 - 1' long. Flowering all seasons but winter. †
21 V. odorata L. Sweet, or English Violet. Stolons creeping; lvs. cordate, crenate, nearly smooth; sep. obtuse; lateral petals with a hairy line. - Native of England. It is well characterized by its long, trailing, leafy runners. The lvs. are truly heart-shaped. Stip. lanceolate, toothed. Ped. longer than the leaves, bracted. Fls. small, fragrant. Several garden varieties are known, and distinguished by the form and color of the flowers; viz: - the purple, white and blue-flowered, the double white, double purple and double blue-flowered, and the Neapolitan with pale blue flowers. Apr., May. †
2. SOLEA, Gingins. Green Violet. (Dedicated to W. Sole, an English writer on plants.) Sepals nearly equal, not auriculate; petals unequal, the lowest 2-lobed and gibbous at base, the rest emarginate; stamens cohering, the lowest 2 bearing a gland above the middle; capsule surrounded at base by the concave torus; seeds 6 - 8, very large. - An erect, leafy plant, with inconspicuous axillary flowers.
S. concolor Gingins. Green Violet. Woods, Western N. Y. to Mo., and S. to Car. Stem 1 - 2f high, simple, and, with the leaves, somewhat hairy. Lvs. 4 - 6' by 1 1/4 - 2 1/4' lanceolate, acuminate, subentire, tapering to short petioles. Ped. very short, 1 - 5-flowered, axillary. Fls. small, greenish, white. Cal. about as long as the corolla Lower petal twice larger than the others. Capsule near 1' in length. Apr., May.