C. Novae-Angliae, var. deflexa, Bailey; Macoun, Cat. IV., 160.

"Rather stiff, 4 to 12 inches high, in dense tufts; most of the culms somewhat exceeding the leaves; staminate spike prominent and erect, 3 to 5 lines long, sessile or very short peduncled; pistillate spikes two or three, all scattered, the uppermost at, or near, the base of the staminate spike, the lowest very prominently peduncled and subtended by a conspicuous bract which surpasses the culm, all rather compactly, three to eight-flowered, green, or brown-green; radical spikes usually abundant; perigynium much as in short-beaked forms of C. umbellata; scales large and sharp equalling or exceeding the perigynium." Grassy thickets, McLeod's Lake, and Telegraph Trail, B.C.; also on Mount Arrowsmith, Vancouver Island. Alt. 5500 feet. (Macoun.)

Var. Rossi i, Bailey, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, I., 43.

C. N ovae-Angliae,, var. Rossii, Bailey; Macoun, Cat. IV., 160.

"Stiff throughout, very strict, the leaves mostly equalling or exceeding the culms, the whole plant usually light-colored; staminate spike much as in the last, often larger; pistillate spikes one to three, distinct or sometimes scattered, loosely one to four-flowered; radical spikes usually abundant; scales very sharp, greenish-white or very rarely bearing an inconspicuous colored margin." In woods, from the Pacific coast to Spence's Bridge. (Macoun.)

(3199.) C. amplifolia, Boott; Hook. Fl. II., 228, t. 226.

In abundance in and around springs in woods Vernon, near Lake Okanagan, B.C. 1889. (Macoun.)

(2655.) C. castanea, Wahl.; Gray, Man., ed. VI., 603.

References under C. flexilis, Rudge, Part IV, 162, belong here.

(2658.) C. capillaris, Linn.; Macoun, Cat. IV., 163.

C. capillaris var. Krausei, Macoun, Cat. IV., 163. C. Saskatchewana, Macoun, Cat, IV., 163.

Prof. Bailey having examined the specimens upon which these forms were founded, refers them both here.

(2671.) C. lupulina, Muhl. (1805); Bailey, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, I., 11.

References under G. lurida, Wahl., Part IV., 167, belong here. Prof. Bailey shows that 0. lurida, properly belongs to G. tentaculata.

Var. Bella-villa, Bailey, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, I., 12.

References under G. lurida, var. divergens, Bailey, Part IV., 168, belong here.

Var. pedunculata, Dewey; Bailey, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, I., 12.

References under C. lurida, var. polystachya, Bailey, Part IV., 168, belong here.

(2673.) Since writing the article under this number, Part IV., 168,

we have received specimens of C. Raeana (named by Boott), from the British Museum, and can make nothing of it except an immature specimen of C. oligospermia. In the summer of 1888, J. M. Macoun collected on Methy Portage many specimens of both C. oliogosperma and C. monile. Prof. Bailey in Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. I., 39, makes C. Raeana a variety of C. monile. It is very probable that Boott had young specimens of C. oligospermia and C. monile before him when he characterized the species he named C. Raeana. The description of Prof. Bailey combines the spikes of C. monile and the leaves of C. oligospermia, and the compound is Boott's C. Raeana. Prof. Bailey writes me that "The type of C. Raeana, in Herb. Boott, is clearly different from C. oligospermia." Whatever it is there is no evidence that it is a good species, and may be, as I state above a compound of C. monile and C. oligospermia.

(2674.) C. miliaris, Michx.; Bailey, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, I., 35.

C. miliaris, Michx. . Macoun, Cat. IV., 199, in part. C. Raeanat Boott; Macoun, Cat. IV., 168, in part.

Below is Prof. Bailey's arrangement of the species, and I agree with his remark that "whatever future observers may decide as to the merits of the varieties I propose, the disposition suggested cannot fail to make the species better known." My difficulties are all cleared away by the arrangement, but var. major may be Michaux's type.

"Culm very slender but erect (12 to 18 in. high), smooth or slightly rough above on the angles; leaves narrow, often almost filiform, rough on the edges, mostly shorter than the culm; staminate spikes one or two, elevated an inch or more from the upper pistillate spike, very narrow, an inch or less long; pistillate spikes one to three, the upper one sessile and the lower very short-stalked, small (3/4 in. or less long), the lowest subtended by a bract which usually exceeds it; perigynium very small, broadly or round-ovate or ovate-oblong; thin but firm in texture, bearing a nerve upon either angle, but otherwise nerveless or sometimes bearing a few very faint nerves near the base, rounded into a very short and terete beak which is either entire or somewhat erose; pistillate scales brown, lance-ovate, ending in a sharp whitish tip which nearly or quite equals the perigynium." Island in the Saguenay River, near Lake St. John, Que. (A. H. Smith.) Drury's Cove, St. John, N.B. (Herb. Gray.) Near St. John, KB., 1817. (Prof. Fowler.) Newfoundland. (La Pylaie, Herb. Gray.)

Var. obtusa, Bailey, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, I., 36.

"Culm mostly shorter and even more slender; pistillate spikes much smaller (from 1/3 in. long to smaller and globular), closely sessile; pistillate scale very obtuse, little if any more than half the length of the perigynium." Marguerite River, Que. (A. H. Smith, fide Bailey.) One small specimen received from Prof. Fowler, collected at Kenne-beckasis, N.B, June 30th, 1878, is this variety. The others are the type. (Macoun.)

Var. major, Bailey, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, L, 36.

"Much stouter (often fully two feet high), the culm thick and very sharply angled; leaves stout and canaliculate or involulate; staminate spikes short stalked; pistillate spikes one to five, mostly short-oblong, but often cylindrical (varying from 1/3 to 1 1/2 in. long), stout and very dark and dull-brown, the lower one or two short-peduncled; scale varying from wholly obtuse to muticous." Lake Mistassini, N.E.T., 1885. (J. M. Macoun.) Jupiter River, Anticosti, Q., 1883. (Macoun.) Ungava Bay, Labrador, 1884. (Turner.)

Var. (?) a urea, Bailey, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, I., 37.

"Taller and mostly stouter than the species; staminate spikes two to three, mostly long-peduncled; pistillate spikes one or two, the upper sessile, the lower short-peduncled, often staminate at the apex, yellow or stramineous; perigynium thin and yellow as in C. monile, mostly prominently few-nerved, gradually produced into a conspicuous and more or less toothed beak, broader and usually longer than the light brown or whitish muticous scale." Kennebeckasis, N.B. (Prof. Fowler, fide Bailey.)

(2675.) C. physocarpa, Presl.; Macoun, Cat. IV., 169.

Sparingly along Spallumsheen Arm, at Sicamous, B.C., July, 1889. (Macoun.)

(2619.) C. utriculata, Boott; Hook. Fl. II., 221.


References under C. rostrata, With., and its variety utriculata, Bailey, Part IV., 170, 171, belong here. Specimens referred here were collected in an immature state at Agassiz, B.C., May, 1889. (Macoun.)

(3200.) C. exsiccata, Bailey, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, I. 6.

C. vesicaria var. major, Boott; Macoun, Cat. IV., 171, in part.

"Differs at once from C. vesicaria by its greater size and broader leaves, thicker and more nearly sessile spikes, and particularly by the much longer, lance-ovate, scarcely inflated, duller and strongly nerved perigynium, which is three or four times longer than the very narrow and muticous scale. In some of its forms it strongly suggests C. trichocarpa, Muhl., var. aristata, Bailey." Wet marshy places, near Victoria, Vancouver Island, 1885. (Fletcher.) Common and variable everywhere on Vancouver Island, 1887; on the mainland of British Columbia, from the coast to the Gold Range. (Macoun.)

Var. globosa, Bailey, Mem. Torr., Bot. Club, I., 1.

C. vesicaria var. major, Macoun, Cat. IV., 171, in part.

"More slender than the species, the leaves narrow (1/3 in. or less wide); spikes small (an inch or less long), more or less scattered, closely sessile, rusty in color; perigynium narrower, conspicuously spreading; scale hyaline and very small." Home Lake, near Mount. Mark, Vancouver Island. 1887. (Macoun.)

Var. pungens, Bailey, Mem. Torr.Bot. Club, I., 7. C. vesicaria, var. major, Macoun, Cat. IV., 171, in part.

"Slender; spikes narrowly cylindrical (the size of a pencil) one to two inches long, usually dark colored; scales firm, very sharp-pointed, half or a third as long as the the perigynium." Wet places at Cowichan, Nanaimo and Cameron Lake, Vancouver Island, 1887; common in swamps at Port Hammond, Agassiz, and eastward to Craigellachie, Eagle River, B.C. (Macoun.)

(2684.) C. lurida, Wahl.; Bailey, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, I., 10. References under C. tentaculata, Muhl., Part IV., 173, belong here.

(2687.) P. Pseudo-Cyperus, Linn., var. Americana, Hochst.; Bailey, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, 1, 54.

References under G. Pseudo-Cyperus, var. comosa, W. Boott, Part IV., 174, belong here.