C. ruber: stems stout, tufted, glabrous, somewhat glaucous, 1-2 feet high; leaves ovate-lanceolate, entire; flowers numerous, red, rarely white, in dense cymes, forming a handsome oblong, terminal panicle; border of the calyx unrolling in the ripe fruit into a bell-shaped feathery pappus. - Red Valerian. - Naturalized on chalk cliffs and old walls. Fl. June to September.