H. Pilosella: leaves oblong or lanceolate, entire, tapering at the base, white beneath with short stellate down; peduncles radical, with a single head of lemon-coloured flowers, often tinged with red on the outside; achenes short in proportion to the pappus. - Dry pastures, banks, and roadsides. - Fl. May to July.
** Stems several-flowered or many flowered.
H. murorum: leaves spreading, rather large, ovate or oblong, stalked, sometimes obtuse and nearly entire, more frequently pointed and coarsely-toothed, persistent at the time of flowering; flower-stems erect, 1-2 feet high, with 1-2 leaves near the base; flower-heads large, yellow, usually 3-4, sometimes 20-30, in a loose terminal corymb; involucres and peduncles more or less clothed with black glandular hairs, intermixed with a shorter rusty-coloured down, the outer scales few and much shorter than the inner. - Banks, old walls, meadows, pastures, and open woods. Fl. July to August.
Mr. Bentham includes as a variety, H. vulgalum (sylvati-cum), which has a much more leafy stem.
H. umbellatum: stems leafy, erect, rigid, 1-3 feet high, hairy at the base; leaves narrow-lanceolate or oblong, the lower ones stalked, all tapering at the base; flower-heads numerous, on rather short lateral branches towards the summit of the stem, several of which start from so nearly the same point as to form an irregular umbel; involucres and peduncles glabrous or shortly downy; scales of the involucre regularly imbricated, the outer ones usually spreading at the tips. - Woods, stony places, and banks. Fl. July to September.
H. sabaudum: stems 1-3 feet high, stout, equally tall with H. umbellatum, but without radical leaves at the time of flowering, less rigid and more hairy; leaves larger, broader, and more toothed, the upper ones shorter, rounded at the base, sometimes almost stem-clasping; flowering branches forming a loose corymb, never an umbel. - Woods, hedges, and shady places. Fl. August and September.