This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Club 21: 263. 1894. S. tonsum Bicknell; Britt. & Br. I11. Fl. 2: 590.
Stem erect, l°-2° high, slender, obtusely 4-angled, glabrous below, minutely glandular-puberulent above. Leaves 2-3' long, 10"-20" wide, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute at the apex, obtuse or subcordate at the base, minutely ciliolate, otherwise glabrous, the upper much smaller; petioles slender, glabrous, or ciliate only at the base; panicle open, leafy; pedicels slender, 2-6 times as long as the flowers; calyx-segments lanceolate, very acute; corolla 9"-10" broad, its segments cuspidate; capsule shorter than calyx.
On dry rocks, Virginia to Kentucky, Tennessee and Alabama. June-July.
L. radicans Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. 1: 177. 1836.
Stem weak, at first erect, soon decumbent or reclined and often rooting at the joints, very slender, glabrous, much branched, 1°-3° long Leaves membranous, pinnately veined, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate at the apex, rounded or narrowed, but not cordate at the base, 1'-4' long, 1/4'-1' wide; margins not ciliolate; petioles naked or very sparingly ciliolate, 1/4'-1 1/4' long; peduncles filiform, ¥-2' long; calyx-segments ovate or lanceolate, acuminate, about equalling the erose-denticulate corolla-segments; flowers 3"-4" broad; capsule about one-half as long as the calyx.
In swamps, Virginia and West Virginia to Arkansas and Texas. June-Aug.
Stem erect, slender, glabrous, simple or branched, 6'-3o high. Leaves lanceolate, linear or oblong-lanceolate, petioled or nearly sessile, membranous, pinnately veined, acute or acuminate at the apex, usually narrowed at the base, 1'-5' long, 2"-10" wide, the margins naked or cihate; lower leaves shorter, often oblong or nearly orbicular; petioles 2"-8" long, naked or ciliate; peduncles slender or filiform, 1/2'-1 1/2' long; calyx-segments lanceolate, acute or acuminate, nearly as long as or exceeding the erose and cuspidate-pointed corolla-segments; flowers 5"-9" broad; capsule nearly as long as the calyx-segments.
In moist soil, Maine to North Dakota. south to Florida, Louisiana and Arizona. June-Aug. Consists, apparently, of several races, regarded by some authors as species, which differ in width of leaves, length of petioles, length and shape of staminodes.
12: 63. 1876. Steironema quadriflorum Hitchc. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 5: 506. 1891.
Stem erect, strict, glabrous, simple or little branched, 4-sided, 6'-3° high. Stem-leaves all but the lowest sessile or very nearly so, firm, narrowly linear, 1-nerved, the lateral veins obscure, acute or acuminate at both ends, 1'-4' long, 1"-2 1/2" wide, usually with smaller ones fascicled in the axils, glabrous, the margins slightly revolute; basal leaves oblong or linear-oblong, shorter, slender-petioled, acute or obtuse; peduncles filiform, 1'-1 1/2' long; calyx-segments lanceolate, acute, shorter than the cuspidate and slightly erose corolla-segments; flowers 8"-12" broad, often somewhat clustered in 4's at the ends of the branches.
Along streams and lakes, Virginia to western New York, Ontario, Kentucky, Missouri, Iowa and Manitoba. June-July.