This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Perennial by slender rootstocks, glabrous or nearly so or sometimes pubescent or canes-cent; stems erect or diffuse, often several from the same root, simple or branched, 6'-3° high. Basal leaves nearly orbicular or broadly ovate, usually cordate, slender-petioled, 1/4'-1' wide, dentate or entire, often wanting at flowering time; stem leaves linear or linear-oblong, acute, mostly entire, sessile, or the lower narrowed into short petioles and somewhat spatu-late; flowers several or numerous, racemose or sometimes solitary, drooping or spreading, slender-pedicelled; calyx-lobes subulate to filiform, spreading, longer than the short-turbi-nate tube; corolla blue, campanulate, 7"-12" long; capsule obconic or ovoid, pendulous, "ribbed, opening by short clefts near the base.
On moist rocks and in meadows, Labrador to Alaska, south to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Nebraska, in the Rocky Mountains to Arizona and in the Sierra Nevada to California. Also in Europe and Asia. Consists of many races, differing in pubescence, number and size of flowers; arctic and alpine plants are usually 1-few-flowered. Other English names are thimbles, lady's-thimble, heath- or witches'-bells, round-leaved bellflower. June-Sept.
Campanula patula L., which is retrorse-scabrous on the stems and leaf-margins and nerves, the basal leaves obovate to spatulate, has been found in fields in Connecticut, introduced from Europe.
Campanula rapunculoides L. Sp. Pl. 165. 1753.
Perennial by slender rootstocks; stem glabrous or pubescent, simple or rarely branched, leafy, erect, rather stout, 1°-3° high. Leaves pubescent or puberulent, crenate-denticulate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, the lower and basal ones mostly cordate, 3'-6' long, 1 '-2' wide, slender-petioled, the upper short-petioled or sessile, smaller; flowers short-pedicelled, drooping, 1'-1 1/2' long in an elongated bracted 1-sided raceme; corolla campanulate, blue to violet, rather deeply 5-lobed, much longer than the linear spreading calyx-lobes; capsule globose, nodding, about 4' in diameter, opening by pores near the base.
In fields and along roadsides, New Brunswick to Ontario, southern New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Naturalized from Europe. July-Sept.
C. Trachelium L. Sp. Pl. 166. 1753.
Perennial; stem rather stout, little branched, usually bearing scattered hairs, 30 high or less; basal leaves sparingly bristly-pubescent, ovate to reniform, cordate, slender-petioled; stem leaves ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, coarsely irregularly serrate, 21/2'-5' long, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, short-petioled or the upper sessile; flowers nodding in terminal leafy-bracted racemes; calyx bristly-hairy or gla-brate; corolla campanulate, 1'-1 1/2' long; capsule opening by basal pores.
Roadsides and thickets, Quebec to southern New York and Ohio. Naturalized from Europe. Canterbury bells. July-Sept.