This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Stem glabrous, rather slender, 3°-5° high. Leaves firm or thick, those of the stem linear-lanceolate to linear, sessile, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, 2-4' long, rough-margined, triple-nerved, entire, or sparingly serrate with low sharp teeth, the basal and lowest ones mostly larger, spatulate, petioled; heads 2"-3" high, se-cund on the spreading or recurving branches of the short and broad, usually naked panicle; bracts of the involucre oblong, greenish-tipped, obtuse, or the inner acute, thick; rays 6-13, short; achenes nearly glabrous.
Solidago Shortii T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 222. 1841.
Stem slender, glabrous below, minutely pubescent above, 2°-4° high. Leaves firm, oblong-lanceolate, sessile (the lowest petioled?), triple-nerved, acute or acuminate at the apex, glabrous on both sides, the larger 2'-4' long, 5"-6" wide, sharply serrate with rather small and distant teeth, the upper gradually smaller, sparingly serrate, or entire; heads about 3" high, secund on the usually recurved branches of the commonly large puberulent panicle; involucre narrowly campanulate, its bracts linear-oblong, obtuse; rays 5-7, rather small; achenes silky-pubescent.
On rocks at the Falls of the Ohio river. Erroneously recorded from northwestern Arkansas. July-Aug.
Solidago Gattingeri Chapm.; A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 1: Part 2, 156. 1884.
Stem slender, 2°-3° high, branched at the inflorescence, glabrous throughout. Leaves firm, glabrous beneath, rough above, ciliolate, the lower and basal ones oblanceolate or spatulate, acutish, 3'-6' long, 6"-10" wide, serrate with low distant teeth, narrowed into margined petioles; upper leaves abruptly smaller, linear-oblong or oblanceolate, bract-like, entire, sessile; heads 2"-2i" high, somewhat secund on the spreading, often very slender and elongated branches of the panicle; bracts of the involucre oblong, very obtuse; rays 6-10; achenes puberulent, or glabrous below.
In dry soil, Tennessee and Missouri. July-Aug. A plant similar to this, but with larger serrate stem-leaves, occurs in central Nebraska.
Solidago altissima L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753.
S. procera Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 211. 1789.
Solidago canadensis procera T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 224. 1841.
Solidago canadensis scabra T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 224. 1841.
Stem stout, pubescent, or hirsute nearly throughout, 2°-8° high. Leaves lanceolate, triple-nerved, acute at each end, roughish above and pubescent beneath, the lower ones sharply serrate and petioled, 3'-6' long, 4"-12" wide, the upper smaller, often entire, sessile; heads 1 1/21"-2 1/2" high, usually numerous, secund on the spreading or recurving branches of the usually large panicle; bracts of the involucre linear, obtuse or acutish; rays 9-15; achenes glabrous or somewhat pubescent.
Usually in dry soil, Maine to Ontario, Nebraska, Georgia and Texas. Confused, in our first edition, with S. canadensis L. Yellow weed. Aug.-Nov.