This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
5. pl. 1, 2. 1788. Branching or scapose, more or less pubescent herbs, with alternate or basal leaves, and large peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, or rays wanting. Involucre depressed-hemispheric, or flatter, its bracts imbricated in 2 or 3 series, their tips spreading or reflexed. Receptacle convex or globose, bristly, fimbrillate or nearly naked. Rays cuneate, yellow, purple or parti-colored, neutral or rarely pistillate, 3-toothed or 3-lobed. Disk-flowers perfect, fertile, their corollas with slender tubes and 5-toothed limbs, the teeth pubescent with jointed hairs. Anthers minutely sagittate or auricled at the base. Style-branches tipped with filiform or short appendages. Achenes turbinate, 5-ribbed, densely villous, at least at the base. Pappus of 6-12, 1-nerved awned scales, longer than the achene. [Named for M. Gaillard de Marentonneau, a French botanist.]
Aboul 15 species, natives of the south-central part of the United States, and Mexico, 1 in southern South America. Type species: Gaillardia pulchella Foug. Called in Texas blanket-flower.
Stem leafy; style-tips with filiform hispid appendages.
Fimbrillae of the receptacle obsolete, or short.
1. G. lute a.
Fimbrillae subulate or bristle-like, mostly longer than the achenes. Rays yellow; fimbrillae exceeding the achenes.
2. G. aristata.
Rays purple, or red at base; fimbrillae about equalling the achenes.
3. G. pulchella.
Leaves basal; style-tips with short naked appendages; rays none, or few.
4. G. suavis.
Gaillardia lutea Greene, Pittonia 5: 57. 1902.
Stem roughish-puberulent or cinereous, usually branched, l 1/2°- 2° high, the branches straight, nearly erect. Stem leaves sessile, oblong-lanceolate, serrate, roughish-puberulent, acute at the apex, narrowed to the base, 1'-2' long, 2"-5" wide; heads about 2' broad, peduncled; bracts of the involucre about equalling the yellow disk; rays 8-12, yellow; style-tips with filiform hispid appendages; achenes villous at the base, or to beyond the middle; fimbrillae of the receptacle short or none; awns of the pappus slender.
Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 573. 1814.
Perennial; stem simple, or little branched, hirsute or densely pubescent with jointed hairs. 1°-3° high. Leaves firm, densely and finely pubescent, the lower and basal ones petioled, oblong or spatulate, laciniate, pinnatifid or entire, mostly obtuse, 2'-5' long; upper leaves sessile, lanceolate, or oblong, or slightly spatulate, smaller, entire or dentate, rarely pinnatifid; heads 1 1/2'- 4' broad, long-peduncled; bracts of the involucre lanceolate, acuminate, hirsute; rays 10-18, yellow; style-tips with filiform appendages; fimbrillae of the receptacle mostly longer than the achenes, which are villous at least at the base.
On plains and prairies, Minnesota to Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Colorado, New Mexico and Oregon. Adventive eastward. Leaves sometimes all basal. May-Sept.
Gaillardia pulchella Foug. Mem. Acad. Sci. Paris 1786: 5. 1786.
Annual; diffusely branched at the base, the branches ascending, 6'-15' high, or larger in cultivation, more or less hirsute or pubescent with jointed hairs. Leaves lanceolate, oblong, or the lower spatulate, 1' - 3' long, entire, dentate or sinuate-pinnatifid, all but the lowest sessile; heads l' - 3' broad, long-peduncled, bracts of the involucre lanceolate, acuminate, hirsute or pubescent; rays 10-20, red or purple at the base, yellow toward the apex; style-tips with filiform hispid appendages; fimbrillae of the receptacle equalling or scarcely longer than the achenes, which are more or less villous, or glabrous.
In dry soil, Nebraska and Missouri to Louisiana, Mexico and Arizona. May-Sept.
Annual or biennial. Leaves in a basal tuft, or a few near the base of the slender pubescent scape, spatulate or obovate in outline, 2'-6' long, pinnatifid, dentate, or some of them entire; scape 1°-2° high, monocephalous; head about 1' broad with the odor of heliotrope, globose in fruit; rays none, or short and pistillate, or a few of them longer and neutral; bracts of the involucre oblong or lanceolate, sparingly pubescent; fimbrillae of the receptacle obsolete; style-appendages short, naked; achenes densely villous; pappus scales broad, their awns very slender.
In dry rocky soil, Kansas to Texas. April-June.