This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Pedicularis canadensis L. Mant. 86. 1767.
Perennial, hirsute, pubescent, or glabrate below; stems commonly tufted, ascending or erect, 6'-18' high, simple. Leaves alternate or some of them opposite, oblong-lanceolate, 3'-5' long, all but the uppermost slender-petioled, pinnately parted into oblong, obtuse, incised or dentate lobes; flowers spicate, the spike short in flower, 5'-8' long in fruit, the lower bracts usually foliaceous, the others small; calyx cleft on the lower side; 2-3-crenate on the upper, oblique; corolla yellow, or reddish (rarely white), 7"-10" long, the tube much longer than the calyx, the galea arched, incurved, not beaked, minutely 2-toothed below the apex; capsule lanceolate, oblique, 7"-8" long, 2" wide, about 3 times as long as the calyx.
In dry woods and thickets, Nova Scotia to Manitoba, Florida, Mississippi, Kansas, Colorado and North Mexico. Ascends to 3000 ft. in Virginia. High heal-all. Beefsteak-plant. Lousewort-fox-glove. Snaffles. April-June.
Perennial, pubescent, at least above; stem strict, simple, 2°-3° high. Leaves lanceolate, alternate, or some of them opposite, the lower long-petioled, 4'-6' long, pinnately divided into ovate or oblong, pinna-tifid or incised segments, the upper sessile, pinnately parted or lobed; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes entire or dentate; narrow, somewhat unequal; corolla yellow, 7"-9" long, the galea arched, truncate, not beaked, 2-cuspidate at the apex; capsule ovate.
In swamps and along streams, Maine and New Brunswick. July-Sept.
Pedicularis flammea L. Sp. Pl. 609. 1753.
Perennial, glabrous, or somewhat woolly; stem simple, 2'-4' high, with several linear-oblong, pinnately parted leaves. Basal and lower leaves slender-petioled, 1'-1 1/2.' long, the uppermost sessile, the lobes ovate or oblong, incised-serrate; flowers about 6" long, pedi-celled in a short spike-like raceme, longer than the narrow bracts; calyx 5-toothed, the teeth lanceolate, acute, unequal; corolla-tube and the lower lip greenish yellow, the galea slightly arched, very blunt, much longer than the lower lip, its summit crimson of purple; capsule lanceolate, 6"-8" long, 2-3 times as long as the calyx; fruiting pedicels 3"-5" long.
Labrador and Greenland, west to Alaska. Also in arctic and alpine Europe. Summer.
Pedicularis capitata Adams, Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 5: 100. 1817.
Perennial, pubescent or glabrous; stem scapose, leafless, or 1-leaved, 1'-5' high. Leaves slender-petioled, often shorter than the scape, pinnately divided, the segments ovate or oblong, incised; flowers several in a capitate cluster at the end of the scape, 1'-1 1/2' long; calyx 5-cleft, the lobes foliaceous, incised or crenate; corolla described as white; galea scarcely broadened above, slightly curved, very obtuse, twice as long as the lower lip; capsule oblong, a little longer than the calyx, beaked on the outer side near the summit.
Arctic America; Hudson Bay to Alaska. Summer.