Herbs (some exotic species shrubby), mostly with opposite leaves, and variously colored bracted flowers, in terminal solitary corymbed or panicled spikes. Calyx usually tubular, 5-angled, more or less unequally 5-toothed. Corolla salverform or funnelform, the tube straight or somewhat curved, the limb spreading, 5-lobed, slightly 2-lipped or regular. Stamens 4, didynamous, or very rarely only 2, included; connective of the anthers unap-pendaged, or sometimes provided with a gland. Ovary 4-celled; ovule 1 in each cavity; style usually short, 2-lobed at the summit, one of the lobes stigmatic. Fruit dry, mostly enclosed by the calyx, at length separating into 4, 1-seeded linear or linear-oblong crustaceous smooth papillose or rugose nutlets. [Latin name of a sacred herb.]

About 100 species, natives of America, or a single one indigenous in the Mediterranean region. Besides the following, some 15 others occur in the southern and western parts of North America. Type species: Verbena officinalis L.

Flowers 2"-5" long, in narrow spikes; anthers unappendaged. Spikes filiform or slender; bracts shorter than the flowers. Spikes filiform; fruit scattered; corolla usually white.

Leaves incised or pinnatifid; diffuse annual; fruit short.

1. V. officinalis.

Leaves serrate (rarely incised): erect perennial; fruit oblong.

2. V. urticifolia.

Spikes slender; fruit densely imbricated: corolla blue.

Plants glabrous or sparingly rough-pubescent; corolla 2" -3" long. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, petioled.

3. V. hastata.

Leaves linear or spatulate-lanceolate. mostly obtuse and sessil 4. V. angustifolia.

Plants densely soft-pubescent; corolla 4"-5" long.

5;. V. stricta.

Spikes thick, dense; bracts longer than the flowers.

6. V. bracteosa.

flowers 7" -12" long, in short dense elongating spikes; connective of the longer stamens appendaged. Corolla-limb 6"-12" broad; bracts mostly shorter than the calyx.

7. V. canadensis.

Corolla-limb 4"- 7" broad; bracts equalling or exceeding the calyx.

8. V. bipinnatifida.

1. Verbena Officinalis L. European Vervain. Herb-Of-The-Cross. Berbine

Fig. 3552

Verbena officinalis L. Sp. Pl. 20. 1753.

Annual; stem 4-sided, slender, glabrous or nearly so, ascending or spreading, diffusely branched, 1°-3° high. Leaves minutely pubescent, the lower deeply incised or 1-2 pinnatifid, ovate, oblong, or obovate in outline, 1'-3' long, narrowed into margined petioles, the teeth acute; upper leaves linear or lanceolate, acute, entire, sessile; spikes several or numerous, filiform, at length 4'-5' long; fruits less than 1" high, scattered along the spikes, not at all imbricated; bracts ovate, acuminate, shorter than the 5-toothed calyx; corolla purplish or white, the limb 1"-2" broad.

In waste and cultivated ground, Maine to Florida, Tennessee and Texas. Also on the Pacific Coast and in the West Indies. Naturalized from the Old World. Sometimes a troublesome weed. Herb-grace. Holy-herb. Enchanter's-plant. Juno's-tears. Pigeon's-grass. Simpler's-joy. June-Sept.

1 Verbena Officinalis L European Vervain Herb Of T 223