Perennial, biennial or annual herbs, with alternate or basal, mostly toothed or pinnatifid leaves, and small or middle-sized heads, usually paniculate or corymbose, of yellow or orange flowers. Involucre cylindric, campanulate, or swollen at the base, its principal bracts in 1 series, equal, with a number of exterior smaller ones. Receptacle mostly flat, naked or short-fimbrillate. Rays truncate and 5-toothed at the apex. Anthers sagittate at the base. Style-branches slender. Achenes linear-oblong, 10-20-ribbed or nerved, not transversely rugose, narrowed at the base and apex, beakless in our species. Pappus copious, of very slender white bristles. [Greek, sandal; application not explained.]

About 200 species, natives of the northern hemisphere. Besides the following, about 20 others occur in western North America. Type species: Crepis tectorum L.

Involucre glabrous.

Involucre cylindric; plant pubescent below; introduced.

1. C. pulchra.

Involucre campanulate; plant glaucous; native, western.

2. C. glauca.

Involucre pubescent, glandular, or canescent.

Foliage not canescent nor scurfy, sometimes hirsute.

Stems naked, or with 1 or 2 small leaves; western, native.

3. C. runcinata.

Stems leafy; introduced annuals or biennials.

Stem leaves narrow, revolute-margined. sessile.

4. C. tectorum.

Stem leaves lanceolate, clasping, not revolute-margined. Involucre 3"-4" high; achenes 10-striate.

5. C. capillar is.

Involucre 4 -6 high; achenes 13-striate.

6. C. biennis.

Foliage cinereous, canescent, or scurfy, sometimes also hirsute. Inner bracts of the involucre 5-8; flowers 5-8.

7. C. intermedia.

Inner bracts of the involucre 9-24; flowers 10-30.

8. C. occidentahs.

21 Crepis L Sp Pl 805 1753 757

1. Crepis Pulchra L. Small-Flowered Hawks-Beard

Fig. 4086

Crepis pulchra L. Sp. Pl. 806. 1753.

Annual; stem 2°-4i° high, leafy and pubescent below, mostly glabrous, naked, and paniculately branched above. Stem leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, dentate, clasping by an auricled base or truncate, pubescent, 3'-4' long, acute or obtuse, or the uppermost lanceolate, acuminate and entire; basal leaves runcinate, narrowed into petioles; heads very numerous, about 3" broad, in a large naked panicle; involucre narrow, cylindric, glabrous, about 5" high, its principal bracts 12-15, linear, acuminate, the outer ones very short, ovate, appressed; achenes linear, faintly 10-nerved, slightly narrowed above.

Along railroad near Culpepper, Virginia, very abundant in 1890. Naturalized or adventive from Continental Europe. May-July.

1 Crepis Pulchra L Small Flowered Hawks Beard 758

2. Crepis Glauca (Nutt.) T. & G. Glaucous Hawksbeard

Fig. 4087

Crepidium glaucum Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II.) 7:436. 1841.

Crepis glauca T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 488. 1843.

Perennial; scapose, or rarely with 1 or 2 leaves on the stem, 1°-21/2° high, glabrous and glaucous throughout. Basal leaves spatulate, oblanceolate, or obovate, acute or obtuse at the apex, gradually narrowed into margined petioles, entire, dentate, or pinnatifid, 2'-6' long, 1/2'-1' wide; heads not numerous, long-peduncled, 6"-12" broad; peduncles glabrous; involucre campanulate, its principal bracts lanceolate, acute, the outer ones very short, ovate, appressed; achenes oblong-cylindric, slightly narrowed above, strongly 10-ribbed.

In moist and saline soil, Nebraska to Saskatchewan, Utah and Nevada. July-Aug.