This section is from the book "Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows", by H. Stuart Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Sub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows.
Scape 10-12 inches high, with 1-3 capitula, downy, leafy below, scaly above. Root-leaves 2 inches broad, on long stalks, cordate-reniform, incised, 7-9 lobed, outer lobes pointed, inner lobes 3-toothed, with soft spines; stem-leaves small, semi-amplexicaul. Capitula up to 1 inch in length. Involucre purple-red. Branches of style warty. Pappus white.
Eastern Alps from Carinthia to Carniola.
Stem erect or ascending, covered with short hairs like the leaves, thickened at the summit, and bearing a single capitulum. Leaves wavy, entire, wedge-shaped or spathulate, 3-nerved, obtuse; upper leaves linear-lanceolate, sessile, acute. Ray-flowers ligulate, violet or mauve; disc-flowers yellow. Capitulum handsome, 1 1/2 - 2 inches across. Bracts of involucre lanceolate, more or less acute, all nearly uniform in height and herbaceous.
Rocks, stony places, and pastures in the Alps and lower Alps; 5000-9000 feet; more frequent on limestone. July, August.
Carpathians, Eastern, Central, and Western Alps; Erzgebirge, Jura, Cevennes, Pyrenees.
Stem erect, leafless, simple, ending in a single capitulum, shaggy or covered with short, soft hairs, like the leaves. Leaves all radical, lanceolate-obovate, narrowed into a foot-stalk, coarsely serrate, obtuse, dull green. Capitulum rather large. Resembles a large daisy, but distinguished by the hairy pappus. The figure is of a robust specimen.
Damp, shady places, and clearings of woods from the sub-alpine region upwards to 6500 feet, especially on limestone. May to autumn.
Carpathians, Eastern, Central, and Western Alps, Jura, Black Forest, Var.
Capitula radiate. Disk yellow. Ray violet or mauve. Involucral bracts in many rows. Receptacle flat, pitted. Ray-flowers in several rows, ligulate. Disk-flowers bi-sexual. Pappus of many rows of hairs, persistent.
An erect annual or biennial, 6-12 inches high, slightly branched, and covered with short hairs. Leaves linear or lanceolate, entire, the radical ones stalked. Flower-heads rather small, solitary on the upper branches, and forming a loose panicle. Florets numerous, filiform, and short, the outer rows pale purple; the tubular florets very few, pale yellow.
Pastures, stony and waste places from the plains to the lower mountains; common. June to September.
All Europe, Asia Minor, Siberia, N. America. British.