This section is from the book "Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows", by H. Stuart Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Sub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows.
About 6 or 10 inches high. Root-leaves stalked, ovate-lanceolate, crenate, wrinkled, glabrous. Flowers violet, usually in false whorls (axillary cymes) of 6. Calyx 2-lipped, upper lip 3-toothed; lateral teeth wedge-shaped. Corolla 2-lipped, upper lip erect, 2-cleft, tube provided with a ring of hairs. Stamens 4, distant, connivent towards the apex beneath the upper lip of corolla. Anthers coherent in pairs; anther-lobes coalescent at the apex, dehiscing by a common longitudinal fissure. It is the only species known.
Grassy pastures in the Alps from about 4000-6500 feet; local, and absent from many large districts, though abundant in Tyrol. June to August.
Eastern, Central, and Western Alps, but extremely rare in the Western Alps, and in Western Switzerland. Pyrenees.
Stem 8-12 inches, erect, branched, nearly glabrous, very leafy. Leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, shining above, paler beneath and dotted, margin slightly recurved. Inflorescence spicate. Bracts broad, ciliate. Flowers violet-blue, handsome.
Pastures and stony places in the Alps; rare. July, August.
Central and Western Alps; Central Pyrenees; Norway; parts of Germany; Asia, Japan.
Rather taller. Leaves with 3-7 linear-lobes, those of the upper leaves narrower, aristate. Flowers large, deep violet, in a short, terminal spike.
Rocky places; rare. May to July.
Grisons, Valais, Tyrol, Dauphiny, Pyrenees (?), Carpathians.
Flowers red-purple. Corolla with long, slender tube, 2-lipped, lower lip of 3 nearly equal lobes. Stamens 4. Cymes 1-3 flowered, on short 'stalks, unilateral. Calyx cylindrical, 5-toothed, not 2-lipped. Leaves small, ovate, sessile, glabrous. Stems wiry, 4-6 inches high.
Rocky places in hot, southern mountains (e.g. about Tenda); very rare. June to August.
French and Italian Maritime Alps; endemic.
Flowers very large, about 1 1/2 inch, pink, or white, spotted with purple, solitary or in pairs in the axils of the leaves. Calyx with rounded lobee. Leaves ovate-cordate, serrate, hairy.
Mountain woods, hedges, and ravines. May to July.
Switzerland, Dauphiny, Savoy, Pyrenees, Corsica; most of France; Centraljand Southern Europe; rare in England.
Cymes many-flowered, sessile. Upper lip of corolla arched, lower lip spreading. Stamens 4. Anthers hairy. Flowers purple, white, or yellow, rather large.
About 40 species in Europe, Asia, and N, Africa, several being weeds in arable-land.
Flowers large, light pink, or purple, rarely white. Leaves often spotted and blotched with white, petioled ovate-cordate, acuminate, hairy, unequally toothed. Very variable in size and habit.
Woods and hedge-banks; common. April to October.
Europe, Caucasus, Asia Minor, Persia.