This section is from the book "Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows", by H. Stuart Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Sub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows.
Herbs with stipules adhering to the leaf-stalks. Leaves trifoliate; leaflets often toothed. Flowers in dense capitate heads. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals narrow, usually remaining round the pod after fading. Stamens diadelphous, the upper ones entirely free. Pod scarcely protruding beyond the calyx, containing from 1-4 seeds.
A numerous and widely spread genus, particularly in the northern hemisphere.
A small, glabrous, stemless plant, the leaves and flowers being all radical. Leaflets linear-lanceolate, toothed, mucronate. Scape terminating in a dense head of stalked and finally pendent flowers, 3-8 in an umbel. Flowers twice as long as the glabrous calyx, flesh-coloured, rose, or rarely white.
Grassy Alpine and sub-alpine declivities, preferring the siliceous rocks and sometimes forming a regular sward; 4000-9000 feet. June to August.
Eastern, Central, and Western Alps; Pyrenees, Spain.
Stems erect, about a foot high, pubescent. Leaflets elliptic, mucronate, pubescent below, glabrous above, strongly nerved, finely toothed. Flower-heads globular or oval, peduncled; flowers white or cream-coloured, rarely rose. Calyx hairy, with equal teeth.
Dry Alpine pastures, mountain woods, etc.; common. May to August.
Alps, Pyrenees, Jura, etc. Most of Continental Europe; Western Asia.
Almost glabrous. Stems erect or ascending, 6-12 inches high. Spikes finally globular. Flowers golden yellow and then light brown. Peduncles thick, longer than the leaves. Stipules lanceolate-acute, shorter than the petiole. Upper leaves opposite; leaflets sessile, obovate, toothed.
Rocky pastures of the Alps, 4000-9000 feet; especially on limestone, but widely spread. July, August.
Jura, Eastern, Central, and Western Alps; Cevennes, Pyrenees, Apennines, Carpathians; Western Asia.
Somewhat resembling the common T. pratense, but stiffer in habit. Leaves shortly petioled; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, strongly nerved, finely toothed. Stipules narrow, upper portion linear, entire. Flowers purple-red, in a globular, terminal, and usually solitary head, the heads being sessile between the 2 upper leaves. Calyx hairy, with 20 nerves and ciliate teeth, the inferior tooth being longer than the tube.
Woods and mountain pastures. June to August.
Eastern France (Maritime Alps, etc.), Cevennes, Pyrenees, Auvergne. Southern and Central Europe, including parts of Switzerland; Western Asia.
1. TRIFOLIUM RADIUM.
2. TRIFOLIU.M ALPINUM.
3. LATHVRUS LUTEUS.
4. VICIA ONOBRYCHIOIDES.
4/7 NATURAL SIZE.