Malaxis Solander

Flowers small, green or yellowish. Sepals and petals spreading, the latter very small. Lip minute, concave. Pollen masses 4. Leaves very few. About 120 species in the temperate and hot regions of both worlds.

Malaxis Paludosa Swartz. Bog Orchis

This, the smallest European Orchid, with small greenish yellow flowers, only grows on the sphagnum of peat bogs, and is very difficult to find. In Switzerland it is very rare and hardly sub-alpine. Central and Northern Europe. British Isles.

Malaxis Monophylla Swartz

Tubers green, adjacent. Stem with one oval leaf only. Plant greenish yellow, 5-12 inches high. Flowers minute, greenish. Lip acuminate, entire, turned upwards, concave at the base. Ovary club-shaped, slightly stalked.

Damp, shady, grassy meadows and other places in the Alps and sub-Alps; rare. July.


Switzerland, Tyrol, Scandinavia, Finnland, Siberia, N. Am.

Listera R.Br

Leaves 2, opposite. Flowers small, green, in a slender, spiked raceme. Sepals broader than the petals. Lip long, linear and 2-cleft. Pollen masses 2.

A small European, North Asiatic, and N. American genus.

Listera Ovata R.Br. Tway-Blade

Rootstock with numerous thickish fibres, creeping. Stem 1-2 feet high, with 2 or 3 sheathing scales at the base, and about half-way up the stem are a pair of broadly ovate green leaves, 3-4 inches long, strongly veined. Raceme long and slender, in fine specimens sometimes 6 or 8 inches. Lip twice as long as sepals or petals, ending in 2 linear lobes.

Moist pastures and woods from the plains to the lower Alps. June, July.


Europe, Western and Northern Asia; N. America. British.

Listera Cordata R.Br. (Plate XXXI)

A very much smaller and more delicate plant, 4-6 inches high. The pair of leaves barely an inch long, broadly ovate and slightly cordate at the base. Flowers very small, in a short raceme on a very delicate and often reddish stem. Corolla-lip linear, 2-cleft, with 2 minute teeth at the base.

Among moss and pine needles in mountain woods extending to about 5000 feet; very local. May to July.


Alps, Jura, Pyrenees, Vosges, Auvergne, Caucasus, Central and Northern Europe, Siberia, N. America; British Isles.

Cephalanthera Rich

Handsome plants with the habit and foliage of Epipactis, but the flowers are almost sessile, erect, usually larger and more beautiful, white or red; the lip has no protuberances at the base of the upper portion; the column is longer and the anther shortly stalked.

A small European and North Asiatic genus.

Cephalanthera Rubra Rich. Red Helleborine

Stems flexuose, 10-20 inches high. Leaves oval to lanceolate, acute. Spike loose, with glandular axis. Flowers bright pink, handsome, with rather narrow white lip. Ovary pubescent. Bracts longer than the ovary.

Woods and thickets, chiefly on limestone; rather scarce, extending to 4500 feet at least. June, July.


Europe, Western Asia. Very rare in England.