P. Canadensis, L. A coarse clammy-hairy herb. Lower leaves opposite, petioled, pinnatifid; the upper alternate, angled or lobed. Heads small; rays pale yellow. - Shaded ravines; south-westward.
1. S. perfoliatum, L., (Cup-Plant) is found in southwestern Ontario. Stem stout, square, 4-8 feet high. Leaves ovate, coarsely toothed, the upper ones united by their bases.
2. S. terebinthina'ceum, L. (Prairie Dock.) Stem tall, round, naked above, smooth. Radical leaves sometimes 2 feet long, rough-hairy, coarsely serrate, on slender petioles. Heads small, loosely panicled. - Open woods and grassy banks, south-western Ontario.
Schreber. Dwarf Dandelion. K. amplexieau'lis, Nutt. (Cynthia Virginica, Don.) Roots fibrous. Stem-leaves 1-2, oblong or lanceolate-spa-thulate, clasping, mostly entire, the radical ones on short winged petioles. Peduncles 2-5. - South-western Ontario.
Tourn. Nipple-wort. L. commu'nis, L. Very slender and branching. Leaves angled or toothed. Heads small, loosely panicled. - Borders of springs; common at Queenston Heights.
C. In'tybus, L. Stem-leaves oblong or lanceolate, partly clasping; radical ones runcinate. - Roadsides and waste places.
L. autumna'le, L. (Fall Dandelion.) Leaves lanceolate, laciniate-toothed or pinnatifid. Scape branched. - Roadsides and waste places; not common westward.
1. H. Canadensis, Michx. (Canada Hawkweed.) Heads large. Stem simple, leafy, corymbed, 1-3 feet high. Peduncles downy. Leaves ovate-oblong, with a few coarse teeth, somewhat hairy, sessile, or the uppermost slightly clasping. Achenes tapering towards the base. - Dry banks and plains.
2. H. scabrum, Michx. (Rough H.) Heads small. Stem stout, 1-3 feet high, rough-hairy, corymbose. Peduncles or involucre densely clothed with dark bristles. Achenes not tapering. - Sandy woods and thickets.
3. H. Grono'vii, L. (Hairy H.) Heads small. Stem wand-like, leafy and very hairy below, naked above, forming a long and narrow panicle. Achenes with a very taper summit. - Dry soil, western Ontario.
4. H. veno'sum, L., (Rattlesnake-weed) with a smooth naked scape (or bearing one leaf), and a loose corymb of very slender peduncles, is found in the Niagara region and south-westward.
5. H. paniculatum, L. Stem slender, leafy, diffusely branched, hairy only below. Heads very small, in a loose panicle, on slender diverging pedicels, 10-20-flowered. Achenes short, not tapering above. Leaves lanceolate, acute at both ends. - Open woods, S. W. Ontario.
6. H. auranti'acum, L., a low hirsute species, with clustered heads of deep-orange flowers on a simple peduncle, leafy at the base, is reported from the neighbourhood of London, Ont.
C. runcinata, Torr, and Gr. Stem 1-2 feet high, glabrous. Radical leaves obovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, with short lobes or teeth. Cauline leaves absent or very small. Involucre pubescent, sometimes it and the upper part of the scape glandular. - N.W.
1. P. alba, L. (Nabalus albus, Hook.) (White Lettuce.) Heads 8-12-flowered. Pappus deep cinnamon-coloured. Stem 2-4 feet high, smooth and glaucous, corymbose-paniculate. Leaves triangular-halberd-shaped, or 3-5-lobed, the uppermost oblong and undivided. - Rich woods.
2. P. altiss'ima, L. (Nabalus altissimus.) (Tall White Lettuce.) Heads 5-6-flowered. Pappus pale straw-coloured. Stem taller but more slender than in No. 1, with a long, leafy panicle at the summit. - Rich woods.
3. P. racenmo'sa, Michx. (Nabalus racemosus, Hook.) Heads about 12-flowered. Involucre and peduncles hairy. Stem wand-like, smooth. Leaves oval or oblong-lanceolate, slightly toothed. Heads crowded in a long and narrow interruptedly spiked panicle. Pappus straw-colour; flowers flesh-colour. - Shore of Lake Huron and south-westward.
4. P. Mainen'sis, Gray. Leaves as in the last, but the radical ones ovate and more abruptly narrowed to the short petiole. Heads 8-12-flowered, persistently drooping on slender pedicels. - Atl. Prov.
Don. L. jun'cea, Don. Much branched from the base, the branches closely erect and rigid, rush-like, terminating in erect heads of pinkish flowers. Leaves small, the lower lance-linear, the upper scale-like. - N.W. plains.
1. T. cuspidatum, Pursh. Scape a foot high. Leaves lanceolate, tapering to a sharp point, entire, woolly on the margins. Achenes beakless. - N.W. prairies.
2. T. glau'cum, Nutt. Scape 1-2 feet high. Leaves varying from entire to dentate or laciniate. Achenes long-beaked. - N.W. prairies.
Haller. Dandelion. T. officinale, Weber. (T. dens-leonis, Desf.) (Common Dandelion.) Outer involucre reflexed. Leaves runcinate. - Fields everywhere.
1. L. Canaden'sis, L. (Wild Lettuce.) Heads numerous, in a long and narrow naked panicle. Stem stout, smooth, hollow, 4-9 feet high. Leaves mostly runcinate, partly clasping, pale beneath; the upper entire. Achenes longer than their beaks. - Borders of fields and thickets.
2. L. scari'ola, L. (Prickly Lettuce.) Stem below sparingly bristly. Leaves vertical, spinulose-denticulate, oblong or lanceolate, prickly on the midrib below. Heads small, 6-12 flowered. - Waste places.
3. L. integrifo'lia, L. Stem 3-6 feet high; leaves all undivided, entire or slightly toothed. Flowers pale yellow, cream-colour, or purple. - Dry soil.
4. L. hirsuta, Muhl. Leaves runcinate, the midrib beneath often sparingly bristly-hairy. Flowers yellowish-purple, rarely white. - Dry soil.
Cass. False or Blue Lettuce. M. leucophae'um, DC. (Lactuca leucophcea. Gray, in Macoun's Catalogue.) Stem tall and very leafy. Heads in a dense compound panicle. - Borders of damp woods, and along fences.
1. S. olera'ceus, L. (Common Sow-Thistle.) Stem-leaves runcinate, slightly toothed with soft spiny teeth, clasping; the auricles acute. - Manured soil about dwellings.
2. S. asper, Vill. (Spiny-leaved S.) Leaves hardly lobed, fringed with soft spines, clasping; the auricles rounded. Achenes margined. - Same localities as No. 1.
3. S. arven'sis, L., (Field S.) with bright yellow flowers and bristly involucres and peduncles, is found eastward.
1. T. praten'sis, L. (Yellow Goat's Beard.) Spreading westward along the railway lines. Flowers yellow. Peduncle little thickened below the head.
2. T. porrifo'lius, L. (Salsify.) Stem 2-3 feet high*. Peduncle thickened below the head. Flowers purple.