36. Rudbeck'ia. L. Cone-flowee

1. R. laciniata, L. Rays linear, 1-2 inches long, drooping. Disk greenish-yellow. Stem tall, smooth, branching. Lowest leaves pinnate, of 5-7 lobed leaflets; upper ones 3-5-parted, or the uppermost undivided and generally ovate. Heads terminal, long-peduncled. - Swamps.

2. R. hirta, L. Rays bright yellow. Disk purplish-brown. Stem very rough-hairy, naked above, bearing single large heads. Leaves 3-ribbed, the lowest spathulate, narrowed into a petiole, the upper ones sessile. - Meadows.

3. R. columna'ris, Pursh. {Lepachys columnaris, Torr. and Gr.) Rays yellow or purplish; disk grayish. Receptacle oblong. Chaff thickened and bearded at the tip. Pappus none or of 2 teeth. Stem branching from the base, 1-2 feet high. Leaves pinnately divided, the divisions 5-9, narrow. Heads single, on the naked branches. - N.W., and at Ottawa.

37. Helian'thus

L. Sun-flower. * Annuals. Leaves alternate. Receptacle flat. Disk brownish.

1. H. an'nuus, L. (Common Sunflower.) Tall, rough. Leaves 3-ribbed, ovate, serrate. Scales of the involucre long-pointed, ciliate. - Escaped from cultivation.

2. H. petiola'ris, Nutt. More slender, 1-3 feet high. Leaves narrow, mostly entire. Scales seldom ciliate. - N. W.

* * Perennials. Receptacle convex. Lower leaves usually opposite.

+ Disk dark.

3. H. rig'idus, Desf. Stem tall and stout, rough. Leaves very thick and rigid, rough both sides, oblong-lanceolate, pointed at both ends, the lowest oval, 3-nerved. Rays 20-25. Pappus of 2 large, and often several small scales. N. W.

+ + Disk yellow.

4. H. Nuttall'ii, Torr, and Gr. Stem slender, smooth, simple. Leaves lanceolate or linear. Pappus-scales long and narrow. - N.W.

5. H. strumo'sus, L. Stem 3-6 feet high, smooth below. Leaves broadly lanceolate, rough above and whitish beneath, pointed, serrate with small appressed teeth, short-petioled. Rays about 10. - Moist copses and low grounds.

6. H. divarica'tus, L. Stem 1-4 feet high, smooth, simple or forking above. Leaves all opposite, widely spreading, sessile, rounded or truncate at the base, ovate-lanceolate, 3-nerved, long-pointed, serrate, rough on both sides. Heads few, on short peduncles. Rays about 12. - Open thickets and dry plains.

7. H. decapet'alus, L. Stem 3-6 feet high, branching, smooth below, rough above. Leaves thin, green on both sides, ovate, coarsely serrate, pointed, abruptly contracted into short margined petioles. Rays usually 10. - Thickets and river-banks.

8. H. gigante'us, L. Stem tall, hairy or rough, branching above. Leaves lanceolate, pointed, serrate, very rough above, hairy below, narrowed and ciliate at the base. Heads somewhat corymbed, not large. Disk yellow; rays pale yellow, 15-20. - Low grounds, western and southwestern Ontario.

9. H. tubero'sus, L., (Jerusalem Artichoke) has escaped from cultivation in some places. It is at once recognized by its tubers.

38. Actinom'eris

Nutt. A. squarro'sa, Nutt. Stem hairy, tall, commonly winged above. Leaves oblong to ovate-lanceolate, pointed at both ends. - S. W. Ontario.

39. Coreop'sis. L. Tickseed

1. C. tinetoria, Nutt. Stem smooth, 2-3 feet high. Leaves once- or twice-pinnately divided, the lobes narrow. Pappus none. Achenes oblong. Rays yellow, brown-tinted. -N.W.

2. C. trichosperm'a, Michx., var. tenuilo'ba, Gray. (Tickseed Sunflower.) Stem smooth, branching. Rays golden-yellow. Leaves short-petioled, pinnately divided, the segments serrate. Achenes narrowly wedge-oblong, 2-toothed. - Swamps, S. W. Ontario.

3. C. verticillata, L. Glabrous. Leaves sessile, divided into 3 sessile leaflets (appearing whorled), these pinnately dissected into very narrow divisions. - Damp places, S. W. Ontario.

4. C. trip'teris, L. Smooth. Stem tall, corymbed above.

Leaves petioled. pinnately divided, the divisions lanceolate, acute, entire. Disk turning brownish. - Damp places, S.W


40. Gaillard'ia

Foug. G. aristata, Pursh. Rough-hairy, about 2 feet high. Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, entire to coarsely pinnat-ifid. - Dry soil, N. W.

41. Bidens. L. Bur-Marigold

1. B. frondo'sa, L. (Common Beggar-ticks.) Rays none. Achenes flat, wedge-obovate, ciliate on the margins with bristles, pointing upwards, 2-awned. Stem tall, branched. Leaves thin, long-petioled, pinnately 3-5-divided, the leaflets ovate-lanceolate, pointed, serrate.

2. B. connata, Muhl. (Swamp Beggar-ticks.) Rays none. Achenes flat, narrowly wedge-shaped, 2-4-awned, ciliate with minute bristles, pointing downwards. Stem 1-2 feet high, smooth. Leaves lanceolate, pointed, serrate, tapering and connate at the base, the lowest often 3-parted and decurrent on the petiole. - In shallow water and low grounds.

3. B. cep'nua, L. (Smaller Bur-Marigold.) Rays short, pale yellow. Achenes flat, wedge-obovate, 4-awned, ciliate with bristles pointing downwards. Stem nearly smooth, 5-10 inches high. Leaves all simple, lanceolate, unequally serrate, hardly connate. Heads nodding. - "Wet places.

4. B. Chpysanthemoi'des, Michx. (Large Bur-Marigold.) Rays an inch long, showy, golden yellow. Achenes wedge-shaped, 2- 4-awned, bristly downwards. Stem smooth, 6-30 inches high, erect or ascending. Leaves lanceolate, tapering at both ends, connate, regularly serrate. - Swamps and ditches.

5. B. Beek'ii, Torr. (Water Marigold.) Aquatic. Stems long and slender. Immersed leaves dissected into fine hairlike divisions; those out of water lanceolate, slightly connate, toothed. Bays showy, golden yellow, larger than the involucre. Achenes linear, bearing 4-6 very long awns barbed towards the apex. - Ponds and slow streams.

42. Heliop'sis. Pers. Ox-Eye

1. H. laevis, Pers. Stem smooth, slender, branching. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute, sharply serrate, on slender petioles. Heads showy; peduncles elongated. - Dry open thickets; London and westward.

2. H. scabra, Dunal. Roughish, especially the leaves. Pappus of 2 or 3 teeth, or a mere chaff-like border. - Niagara Falls and N.W.

43. Achille'a. L. Yarrow

1. A. millefo'lium, L. (Milfoil.) Stems simple. Leaves dissected into fine divisions, Corymb flat-topped. Rays only 4 or 5, short. - Fields and along fences; very common.

2. A. Ptar'mica, L. (Sneeze-wort.) Leaves simple, lance-linear, serrate. Corymb loose. Rays 8-12, much longer than the involucre. - Atl. Prov.