Suborder II. Liguliflorae

Corolla strap-shaped in all the florets of the head. All the florets perfect. Herbs with milky juice, and alternate leaves.

46. Krig'ia. Flowers yellow. Pappus double, the outer short, of many minute chaffy scales, the inner of many long capillary bristles. Low perennials branching from the base, with single small heads on scapes.

47. Lamp'sana. Flowers yellow, 8-12 in a head. Scales of the involucre 8, in a single row. Pappus none. Stem slender. Heads small, in loose panicles.

48. Cichorium. Flowers bright blue, showy. Scales of the involucre in 2 rows, the outer of 5 short scales, the inner of 8-10 scales. Pappus chaffy. Heads sessile, 2 or 3 together.

49. Leon'todon. Flowers yellow. Involucre with bractlets at the base. Pappus of plumose bristles, these broader at the base. Heads borne on branching scapes. Leaves radical.

50. Hiera'cium. Flowers yellow. Scales of the involucre more or less imbricated. Pappus a single row of tawny hair-like rough bristles. Heads corymbose.

51. Crepis. Like Hieracium, but the pappus is of copious white and soft capillary bristles.

52. Prenan'thes. Stems leafy. Flowers yellowish or greenish-white often tinged with purple; heads nodding. Involucre of 5-14 scales in a single row, with a few bractlets below. Pappus copious, of brownish or yellowish rough bristles. Achenes short, blunt.

53. Lygodes'mia. Stems nearly leafless. Flowers white or creamcolour or pinkish. Involucre with bractlets below. Pappus white. Heads erect. Achenes long, tapering. - N. W. only.

54. Trox'imon. Flowers yellow. Head large, solitary, borne on a scape. Leaves radical, elongated, linear, tufted. Achenes 10-ribbed. Involucre loosely imbricated in 2 or 3 rows. - N.W. only.

55. Taraxacum. Flowers yellow, on slender naked hollow scapes.

Achenes prolonged into a slender thread-like beak. Leaves all radical. (See Part I., Chapter viii.)

56. Lactu'ca. Flowers pale yellow or purplish. Florets few (about 20) in the head. Scales of the involucre in 2 or more rows of unequal length. Achenes with long thread-form beaks, and a pappus of very soft white bristles. Heads numerous, panicled. Tall smooth herbs with runcinate leaves.

57. Mulge'dium. Flowers chiefly blue. Structure of the heads and general aspect of the plant as in Lactuca, but the beak of the achenes short and thick, aud the pappus tawny. Heads in a dense panicle.

58. Son'chus. Flowers pale yellow. Heads many-flowered, enlarging at the base. Achenes without beaks. Pappus very soft and white. Tall glaucous herbs with spiny-toothed leaves.

59. Tragopo'gon. Flowers yellow or purple. Heads large. Involucre of about 12 lanceolate rather fleshy scales in one row, somewhat united at the base, Achenes with long tapering beaks. Pappus of plumose bristles, 5 of these longer and naked at the summit. Leaves entire, straight-veined, clasping.

1. Cni'cus. Tourn. Common Thistle

1. C lanceola'tus, Hoff. (Cirsium lanceulatum, Scop.) (Common Thistle.) All the scales of the involucre prickly-pointed. Leaves decurrent, pinnatifid, the lobes prickly-pointed, rough above, woolly with webby hairs beneath. - Fields and roadsides everywhere.

2. C. undula'tus, Gray. {Cirsium undulatum, Spreng.) White-woolly throughout. Low and stout, leafy. Scales tipped with short prickles. Leaves undulate-pinnatifid. - N.W. prairies.

4. C. pu'milus, Torr. Differs from the last in being pubescent but not woolly. The leaves, also, are not pinnatifid. Stem 1-flowered. - Lake Huron.

5. C. altiss'imus, Willd., var. dis'color, Gray. (Cirsium discolor, Spreng.) The inner scales of the involucre not prickly. Stem grooved. Leaves prickly, green above, white-woolly beneath. Flowers pale purple. Whole plant with a whitish aspect. - Dry thickets.

3. C. mu'ticus, Pursh. (Cirsium mrdicum, Michx.) (Swamp Thistle.) Scales of the webby involucre hardly prickly, and not spreading. Stem very tall, and smoothish, and sparingly leafy. Heads single or few. - Swamps and low woods.

4. C. arvensis, Hoff. (Cirsium arvense, Scop.) (Canada Thistle.) Scales of the involucre with reflexed points. Leaves prickly, smooth both sides, or slightly woolly beneath. Roots extensively creeping. Heads small and numerous. - Fields and roadsides.

2. Car'duus. Tourn. Plumeless Thistle

1. C. nutans, L. (Musk Thistle.) Leaves decurrent, sinuate, spiny. Heads solitary, drooping. Flowers purple. - Atl. Prov.

3. Onpor'don. Vaill. Scotch Thistle

0. Acan'thium, L. A coarse branching herb, 2-4 feet high, with woolly stem and leaves. Bristles of the pappus united at the base into a ring. - Roadsides and old fields; not common.

4. Arctium. L. Burdock

A. Lappa, L. (Lappa officinalis, All, var. major, Gray.) A coarse plant with very large cordate petioled leaves, and numerous small globular heads of purple flowers. The involucre forms a bur which clings to one's clothing, or to the hair of animals. - Near dwellings, mostly in manured soil. Varies somewhat as to size and pubescence of the heads.

5. Centaure'a. L. Star-Thistle

1. C. Cy'anus, L. (Blue-Bottle.) An old garden plant, found occasionally along roadsides. False raya very large. Scales of the involucre fringed. . Leaves linear, entire or nearly so. Stem erect. Heads single at the ends of the branches, the flowers bluish. Pappus very short.

2. C. ni'gra, L. (Knapweed.) No false toys. Scales of the globular involucre black-fringed. Leaves lanceolate, mostly entire, rough. Flowers purple. Pappus short or none. - Waste places, chiefly eastward.

3. C. benedicta, L. (Cnicus benedictus, L.) Flowers yellow. Pappus double, of 10 long outer bristles and 10 short inner ones. A low branching annual, with clasping cut leaves, and large sessile leafy-bracted heads. - Atl. Prov.

6. Xan'thium. Tourn. Clotbur

1. X. Canadense, Mill., var. echinatum, Gray. (Common Cocklebur.) Stem rough, not prickly or spiny. Leaves broadly triangular, and somewhat heart-shaped, long-petioled. Fruit a hard 2-celled bur, nearly an inch long clothed with stiff hooked prickles, the two beaks of the fruit long and usually incurved. - Low river-banks and waste places.

2. X. spino'sum, L. (Spiny Clotbur.) Stem armed with conspicuous straw-coloured triple slender spines, at the bases of the lanceolate short-petioled leaves, the latter white-woolly beneath. - Town of Dundas, Ontario; the seeds having been brought in wool from South America.