L. Golden-Rod. * Heads clustered in the axils of the feather-veined leaves.
1. S. squarro'sa, Muhl. Stem stout, 2-5 feet high, simple, hairy above. Scales of the involucre with reflexed herbaceous tips. Leaves large, oblong, serrate, veiny; the lower tapering into a long winged petiole, the upper sessile and entire. Heads in racemose clusters, the whole forming a dense, leafy, interrupted, compound spike. - Rocky woods.
2. S. bi'color, L. Stem hoary-pubescent, usually simple. Leaves oval-lanceolate, acute at both ends; the lower oval and tapering into a petiole, serrate. Heads in short racemes in the upper axils, the whole forming an interrupted spike or compound raceme. Ray-florets whitish. The variety con'color has yellow rays. - Dry banks and thickets.
3. S. latifo'lia, L. Stem smooth, angled, zigzag, 1-3 feet high. Leaves broadly ovate or oval, strongly and sharply serrate, pointed at both ends. Heads in very short axillary clusters. Rays 3 or 4. - Cool woods.
4. S. cae'sia, L., var. axilla'ris, Gray. Stem smooth, terete, glaucous, slender, usually branching above. Leaves smooth, lanceolate, pointed, serrate, sessile. Heads in very short clusters in the axils of the leaves. - Rich woods and hillsides.
* * Racemes-terminal, erect, loosely thyrsoid, not one-sided. Leaves feather-veined.
5. S. hu'milis, Pursh. (S. virgaurea, L., var. humilis, Gray.) Stem low, 6-12 inches high, usually smooth; the heads, peduncles, etc, mostly glutinous. Leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate, serrate or entire, the radical ones petiolate, obtuse, and serrate at the apex. - Rocky banks, not common.
6. S. macrophyl'la, Pursh. (S. thyrsoidea, E. Meyer.) Stems stout, simple, pubescent near the summit. Leaves thin, ovate, with sharp projecting teeth, the lower ones abruptly contracted into Jong margined petioles. Heads large, in an oblong raceme, loose and thin, long-pointed. Bays 8-10, long. - Wooded hillsides, chiefly Atl. Prov.
***Heads in a compound corymb terminating the simple stem, not at all racemose.
7. S. Ohioen'sis, Riddell. Very smooth throughout. Stem slender, reddish, leafy. Radical leaves very long (often a foot), slightly serrate towards the apex, tapering into long margined petioles; stem-leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire, sessile. - Wet grassy shores of Red Bay, Lake Huron.
8. S. rig'ida, L. Rough and rather hoary. Stem stout, 2-5 feet high, very leafy. Leaves oval or oblong. - Dry soil, western Ontario, and N. W.
* * * Heads in one-sided racemes, spreading or recurved. Leaves not 3-ribbed, but sometimes obscurely 3-nerved.
9. S. semper'virens, L. Stem stout. Leaves long, lanceolate, thickish, smooth, entire, obscurely 3-nerved. Bacemes short, in a terminal panicle. Heads large, showy. - Salt marshes and sea-shores.
10. S. puber'ula, Nutt. Stem and panicle minutely hoary. Stem-leaves lanceolate, acute, tapering to the base, somewhat smooth, the lowermost spathulate, sparingly toothed. Heads not large, crowded in compact short racemes, which form a long, dense, terminal panicle. Bays 10-14. - Barren soil, Atl. Prov.
11. S. uliglno'sa, Nutt. (S. stricta, Ait.) Smooth. Stem simple, strict. Leaves lanceolate, pointed, smooth, the lower tapering into winged petioles, finely but sparingly serrate, or entire. Racemes crowded and appressed in a close wand-like panicle. Heads middle-sized. Bays 5-6, small. - Peat - bogs and wet places, Atl. Prov., westward and northward.
12. S. specio'sa, Nutt., somewhat resembles the last, but the leaves are oval or ovate, and the stem is taller and stouter (3-6 feet). The rays, also, are larger. - Copses, Atl. Prov.
13. S. jun'cea, Ait. (S. arguta, Torr, and Gray.) "Whole plant smooth, 1-4 feet high, rigid, branching above. Lower leaves oval or elliptical-lanceolate, serrate with spreading teeth, pointed, tapering into winged and ciliate petioles; upper ones lanceolate. Racemes very dense, naked, at length elongated and recurved. - Woods and banks.
14. S. arguta, Ait. (S. Muhlenbergii, Torr, and Gray.) Stem smooth, angled or furrowed. Leaves large and thin, ovate; the upper elliptical-lanceolate. Racemes much shorter and looser than in No. 13, and the rays much larger. - Moist woods and thickets.
15. S. rugo'sa, Mill. (S. altissima, Torr, and Gray.) Stem rough-hairy, less than a foot high. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong, coarsely serrate, veiny, often rugose. Racemes panicled, spreading. - Borders of fields and copses.
16. S. neglecta, Torr, and Gr. Stem smooth, 2-3 feet high, stout. Leaves thickish, smooth both sides, the upper oblong-lanceolate, nearly entire, the lower ovate-lanceolate or oblong, sharply serrate, tapering into a petiole. Heads rather large. Racemes short and dense, at first erect and scarcely one-sided, at length spreading. - Swamps.
***** Racemes one-sided and recurved, and the leaves plainly 3-ribbed.
17. S. nemora'lis, Ait. Stem minutely and closely hoary-pubescent, simple or corymbed. Leaves more or less hoary, obscurely serrate or entire; the lower oblanceolate, somewhat crenate, and tapering into a petiole. Racemes numerous, dense, at length recurved, forming a large panicle. - Dry fields.
18. S. Missouriensis, Nutt. Stem smooth. Leaves linear-lanceolate, tapering to both ends, with rough margins. Racemes densely crowded. - Dry prairies, N.W.
Var. monta'na, Gray, is only 6-15 inches high, with a small and compact panicle, not more than 2 or S inches long. - N.W.
19. S. Canadensis, L. Stem rough-hairy, tall and stout. Leaves lanceolate, serrate, pubescent beneath, rough above. Panicle exceedingly large. - Very common along fences and in moist thickets.
Var. scabra, Torr, and Gray, has the leaves very rough above and whitish-woolly beneath. - N. W.
20. S. sero'tina, Ait. (S. gigantea, Torr, and Gray.) Stem smooth, stout. Leaves lanceolate, taper-pointed, sharply serrate, except at the base, smooth both sides, rough-ciliate. Rays 7-14, rather long. Panicle large, pubescent. - Open thickets and meadows.
Var. gigante'a, Gray, is very tall and the leaves more or less pubescent beneath. - Thickets and low grounds.
****** Inflorescence a flat-topped corymb.
21. S. lanceolata, L. Stem pubescent above, much branched. Leaves linear-lanceolate, the nerves (3-5) and margins rough-pubescent. Heads in dense corymbed clusters, giving a decidedly characteristic aspect to this species. - Low lake- and river-margins.
1. A. Chamisso'nis, Less. Soft-hairy. Stem leafy to the top, bearing 1-5 heads. Leaves thin and veiny, toothed; the upper ovate-lanceolate, sessile; the lower narrow, tapering to a margined petiole. - Atl. Prov.
2. A. folio'sa, Nutt., has lanceolate leaves, the upper partly clasping and the lower with tapering bases connate. Stem strict. - N. W.
3. A. alpi'na, Olin. Less leafy, low, yellowish-pubescent or villous. Stem simple, bearing a single head as a rule. Leaves thickish, narrowly oblong to lanceolate, the cauline only 1 or 2 pairs. - N. W.
T. Far'fara, L. Wet places, chiefly eastward, but also in Ontario.
1. P. palmata, Gray. Leaves rounded, somewhat kidney-shaped, palmately 5-7-lobed, the lobes toothed and cut. - Cedar-swamps and bogs; wet banks of streams.
2. P. sagittata, Gray. Leaves deltoid-oblong to reni-form-hastate, repand-dentate. - Swamps, N.W.