V. altiss'ima, Nutt. Tall. Leaves lanceolate to lance-oblong. Heads in an open cyme, the involucre purplish. - Fields and roadsides, S. W. Ontario.
1. E. purpu'reum, L. (Joe-Pye weed. Trumpet-weed.)
Stem tall and simple. Leaves petioled, 3-6 in a whorl. Flowers purplish or flesh-coloured. Heads in dense corymbs. - Low grounds.
2. E. perfoli'atum, L. (Boneset.) Stem short, hairy. Leaves rugose, connate-perfoliate, tapering. Flowers whitish. Corymbs very large. - Low grounds.
3. E. ageratoi'des, L. (White Snake-root.) Stem very smooth, commonly branching, 2-3 feet high. Leaves opposite, petioled, broadly ovate, pointed, coarsely serrate. Flowers white, in corymbs. - Low rich woods.
L. Indian Plantain. C. tubero'sa, Nutt. Stem angled and grooved, tall, from a thick root. Leaves 5-7-nerved, the lower lance-ovate or oval, tapering into long petioles. - Western Ontario.
1. I. axilla'ris, Pursh. Stem 1-2 feet high, the nodding heads mostly solitary in the axils of the upper leaves. Leaves small, obovate to oblong-linear, entire, sessile. N. W.
2. I. xanthiifo'lia, Nutt. Stem 3-5 feet high, the narrow spike-like clusters of heads forming a naked panicle. Leaves large, broadly ovate, long-petioled, serrate. - N. W.
1. S. vulga'ris, L. (Common Groundsel.) May-florets wanting. Stem low, branching. Leaves pinnatifid and toothed, clasping. Flowers yellow, terminal. - Cultivated and waste grounds.
2. S. visco'sus, L. Ray-florets very minute. Stem viscid-pubescent and strong-scented. Leaves twice-pinnatifid. - Atl. Prov.
3. S. au'reus, L. (Golden Ragwort. Squaw-weed.) Says 8-12, Stem smooth, or woolly when young, 1-2 feet high. Root-leaves simple, rounded, usually cordate, crenate-ly-toothed, long-petioled. Stem leaves sessile, lanceolate, deeply pinnatifid. Heads in a corymb nearly like an umbel. - Swamps, often in gardens.
Var. obova'tus, Torr, and Gr., has root-leaves round-obovate with a cuneate or truncate base.
Var. Balsam'itae, Torr, and Gr., has root-leaves oblong, spathulate, or lanceolate, serrate.
Var. laneeola'tus, Oakes, has thin lance-oblong root-leaves on long petioles. - Atl. Prov.
4. S. integer'rimus, Nutt. Rays conspicuous. Stem woolly-pubescent when young, soon smoothish and green. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or oblong, the upper bract-like. Heads in a naked corymb, the scales green-tipped. - N.W.
5. S. canus, Hook. Low, persistently woolly. Leaves small, spathulate to oblong. Rays conspicuous. - N.W.
6. S. Jacobaea, L. (Common Ragwort.) Flowers golden yellow, the heads forming a spreading corymb. Stem erect, 2-3 feet high, branching, glabrous or somewhat cottony. Leaves numerous, lyrate, bipinnatifid, the lower with broad segments, the upper with linear divisions, all glabrous. - A troublesome weed in the Atl. Prov. Rare westward.
L. Elecampane. I. Hele'nium, L. (Common Elecampane.) Stem stout, 2-5 feet high. Root-leaves very large, ovate, petioled. Stem-leaves clasping. Rays numerous, narrow. - Roadsides.
Nutt. Golden Aster. C. Villo'sa, Nutt. Hirsute and villous-pubescent. Leaves narrowly oblong, hoary, bristly-ciliate towards the base. Stem branching, the branches terminating in the single heads. - Dry plains, N.W.
Cass. 1. A. spinulo'sus, DC. Low, perennial, branches very minutely hoary-pubescent. Leaves narrow, pinnately or tripinnately lobed, the lobes and teeth bristly, as are also the scales of the involucre. - Dry plains, N. W.
2. A. laneeola'tus, Torr, and Gr. Stem simple, with a tuft of coriaceous radical leaves, and bearing 3 to 15 heads. Rays 20 to 50. Scales of the involucre in 3 or 4 unequal series, lanceolate, with greenish tips and whitish base. - Marshy plains, N.W.
3. A. acau'lis, Gray, var. glabra'tus, Eaton. Stems depressed-tufted, from a woody rootstock, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves rigid, persistent, crowded below, a few only on the scape-like flowering stems, which occasionally branch above and bear 2 or 3 heads. - Dry gravelly ridges, N.W.