Herbs, distinguished as a whole by their regular and symmetrical flowers, having a 6-leaved perianth (but 4-leaved in one species of Smilacina) free from the usually 3-celled ovary, and as many stamens as divisions of the perianth (one before each) with 2-celled anthers. Fruit a pod or berry, generally 3-celled. The outer and inner divisions of the perianth coloured alike, except in the genus Trillium. (See Part. I., sections 82-87, for description of typical plant of this Order.)
* Leaves net-veined, all in one or two whorls. The stem otherwise naked, rising from a fleshy rootstock. Styles 3.
1. Tril'lium. Leaves 3, in a whorl at the top of the stem. Divisions of the perianth in 2 sets, the outer green, the inner coloured. (See Part I., sections 85 and 86.)
2. Mede'ola. Leaves in 2 whorls, the lower near the middle of the stem, and consisting of 5-9 leaves, the upper of (generally) 3 small leaves, near the summit. Stem, tall, covered with loose wool. Flowers small, in an umbel. Divisions of the perianth alike, greenish-yellow, recurved. Anthers turned outwards. Styles thread-shaped. Berry globular or nearly so, dark purple.
* * Leaves straight-veined, linear, grass-like, alternate. Stem simple or tufted. Styles 3.
3. Zygade'nus. Flowers rather large, perfect or polygamous, greenish-white, in a few-flowered panicle; the divisions of the perianth each with a conspicuous obcordate spot or gland on the inside, near the narrowing base. Stem smooth and glaucous, from a coated bulb.
4. Tofield'la. Flowers small, perfect, greenish-white, in a terminal raceme or spike, which, however, develops from above downward; the pedicels in clusters of 3, from little involucres of 3 bracts. Pod triangular. Roots fibrous. Stem leafy at the base only, in our species sticky. Leaves 2-ranked, equitant.
* * * Leaves straight-veined, but broad (not grass-like), alternate. Stem from a rootstock of fibrous roots, at all events not from a bulb. Style one, or more or less divided into 3 above.
+ Perianth of completely separate pieces (polyphyllous. )
5. Uvularia. Stem leafy, forking above. Flowers yellow, at least an inch long, drooping, lily-like, usually solitary (but occasionally in. pairs) at the end of the forks of the stem. Style deeply 3-cleft. Pod triangular. Leaves clasping-perfoliate or sessile.
6. Clinto'nia. Stemless, the naked scape sheathed at the base by 2, 3, or 4 large oblong or oval, ciliate leaves. Flowers few, greenish-yellow, in an umbel at the top of the scape. Filaments long and slender. Style long, the stigmas hardly separate. Beiry blue.
7. Prosar'tes. Downy low herbs, branching above. Flowers greenish, bell-shaped, rather large, solitary orin pairs, drooping on terminal slender peduncles. Sepals taper-pointed. Stigmas 3. Leaves ovate-oblong:, taper-pointed, closely sessile, downy underneath. Berry oblong or obovate, red.
8. Strep'topus. Stem leafy and forking. Flowers small, not quite in the axils of the ovate clasping leaves, on slender peduncles which are bent near the middle. Anthers arrow-shaped, 2-horned at the apex.
9. Vera'trum. Stem tall and stout, very leafy to the top, from a thickened base, producing coarse fibrous roots. Flowers yellowish-green, in a pyramidal panicle of dense spike-like racemes. Perianth somewhat spreading, slightly adherent to the ovary. Filaments of the stamens recurved. Anthers kidney-shaped. Styles 3.
+ + Perianth of one piece (gamophyllous. )
10. Smilaci'na. Flowers small, white, in a terminal raceme. Perianth 6-parted, but 4-parted in one species, spreading. Style short and thick. Stigma obscurely lobed. Filaments slender.
11. Polygonatum. Flowers small, greenish, nodding, mostly in pairs in the axils of the nearly sessile leaves. Perianth cylindrical, 6-lobed at the summit, the6 stamens inserted on or above the middle of the tube. Stem simple, from a long and knotted rootstock. Leaves glaucous beneath.
12. Asparagus. Flowers small, greenish-yellow, axillary, on jointed pedicels. Perianth 6-parted, spreading above, the 6 stamens on its base. Stigma 3-lobed. Berry globular, 3-celled. Stem much branched. Leaves thread-like. Rootstock thick and matted.
**** Leaves straight-veined, not grass-like. Stem usually from a coated or scaly bulb. Style 1, not divided above, but the stigma sometimes 3-lobed. Fruit a pod, splitting open midway between the partitions (loculicidal.)
13. Lil'ium. Stem leafy, from a scaly bulb, the leaves often whorled or crowded. Anthers at first erect, at length versatile. Style long, rather club-shaped. Stigma 3-lobed. Pod oblong. Flowers large and showy, one or more.
14. Erylhro'nium. For full description see Part I., sections 82 and 83.
15. Allium. Scape naked, from a coated bulb. Flowers in an umbel, from a spathe. Style thread-like. Strong-scented plants.
16. Hemerocal'lis. Scape not from a bulb, but from a fleshy-fibrous root. Perianth large, orange-yellow, lily-like, the short tube enclosing the ovary, the spreading limb 6-parted. Stamens 6, on the perianth. Leaves long, linear, keeled, in 2 ranks, at the base of the scape. Flowers several, bracted.