Herbs with small flowers mostly in compound umbels. Calyx-tube grown fast to the surface of the ovary; calyx-teeth minute or none. The 5 petals and 5 stamens inserted on a disk which crowns the ovary. Styles 2. Fruit dry, 2-seeded. Stems hollow. Leaves usually much cut. (See Part I., Chapter VII., for description of a typical flower.)

Synopsis Of The Genera

§ 1. Seeds flat (not hollow) on the inner face.

1. Hydrocot'yle. Umbels simple, or one springing from the summit of another, axillary. Flowers white. Stem slender and creeping. Leaves round-kidney-shaped.

2. Sanic'ula. Umbels irregular (or compound), the greenish flowers capitate in the umbellets. Leaves palmately lobed or parted. Fruit globular, covered with hooked prickles. (In the Genera which follow, the umbels are regularly compound.)

3. Dau'cus. Stem bristly. Leaves twice or thrice-pinnate, or pinnatifid. Bracts of the involucre pinnatifld, very long. Fruit ribbed, the ribs bristly.

4. Heracle'um. Stem 3-4 feet high, woolly and grooved. Leaves 1-2ternately compound. Flowers white, the outer corollas larger than the others. Fruit wing-margined at the junction of the carpels, very flat. Carpels 5-ribbed on the back.

5. Pastina'ca. Stem smooth, grooved. Leaves pinnate. Flowers yellow, all alike. Fruit as in No. 4.

6 Peuced'anum. Low acaulescent herbs, with spindle-shaped roots and twice-pinnate leaves. No involucre; involucels of scarious-margined (often purplish) lanceolate bractlets. Flowers white or yellow. Fruit round, winged on the sides. - N. W. only.

7. Archem'ora. Stem smooth. Leaves pinnate, of 3-9 rather narrow leaflets. Flowers white. Fruit broadly winged, flat, 5-ribbed on the back.

8. Archangel'ica. Stem smooth, stout, purple. Leaves 2-3-ternately compound. Flowers greenish-white. Fruit smooth, flattish on the back, double-wing-margined, each carpel with 3 ribs on the back.

9. Conioseli'num. Stem smooth. Leaves 2-3-pinnately compound, the petioles inflated. Flowers white. Fruit doubly wing-margined, and with 3 narrow wings on the back of each carpel.

10. Tliaspium. Stem smooth. Leaves 1-3-ternatelydivided. Flowers yellow. Fruit not flattened, 10-winged or ribbed.

11. AEthu'sa. Leaves twice or thrice ternately compound, the divisions finely dissected. No involucre: involucels of long narrow bractlets. Flowers white. Fruit ovate-globose, the carpels with 5 thick sharp ribs.

12. Ligus'ticum. Stem smooth, from large aromatic roots. Leaves twice ternate, coarsely toothed. Flowers white. Fruit with prominent acute ribs, having broad spaces between them.

13. Zizia. Stem slender, smooth and glaucous. Leaves 2-3-ternately compound. Flowers yellow. Rays of the umbel long and slender. Fruit contracted at the junction of the carpels; the carpels narrowly 5-ribbed.

14. Cicuta. Stem streaked with purple, stout. Leaves thrice compound. Flowers white. Fruit a little contracted at the sides, the carpels strongly 5-ribbed.

15. Carum. Stem erect, slender, smooth. Leaves pinnately decompound, the divisions filiform. Roots tuberous. Flowers white. Ribs of the ovate or oblong fruit inconspicuous.

16. Slum. Stem grooved. Leaves simply pinnate. Flowers white.

Fruit as in No. 10.

17. Cryptotae'nia. Stem smooth. Leaves 3-foliolate. The umbels with very unequal rays. Flowers white. Fruit nearly as in Nos. 10 and 11.

§ 2. Inner face of each seed hollowed lengthwise.

18. Bupleu'rum. Stem smooth. Leaves perfoliate, ovate, entire. No involucre: involucels of 5 very conspicuous ovate mucronate bractlets. Flowers yellow.

19. Muse'nium. Stem short, branching from the base. Flowers yellow. Leaves twice-pinnatifid. Roots spindle-shaped. No involucre; involucels 1-sided, of a few narrow bractlets. Ribs of the ovate fruit slightly prominent. - N. W. only.

20. Osmorrhi'za. Leaves large, 2-3-ternately compound. Flowers white. Fruit linear-oblong, angled, tapering downwards into a stalk-like base. Ribs of the carpels bristly upwards.

21. Co'nium. Leaves large, decompound. Flowers white. Fruitovate, flattened at the sides, 5-ribbed, the ribs wavy.

§ 3. Inner face of each seed curved inwards at top and bottom.

22. Erige'nia. Stem low and smooth. Leaves 2-3-ternately divided. Fruit twin. Carpels nearly kidney-form. Umbels 3-rayed, small. Flowers white.

I. Hydrocot'yle. Tourn. Water Pennywort

H. Amepica'na, L. Stem spreading and creeping, very slender. Leaves kidney-shaped, crenate, slightly lobed. Umbels 3-5-flowered, inconspicuous, in the axils of the leaves. - Shady wet places.

2. Sanic'ula

Tourn. Sanicle. Black Snakeroot. S. Marilan'dica, L. Leaves 5-7-parted. Staminate flowers very numerous, and on slender pedicels. Styles long, recurved. - Rich woods.

Var. Canaden'sis, L. Leaves 3-5-parted. A few staminate flowers among the perfect ones, and on very short pedicels. Styles shorter than the prickles of the fruit. - Low rich woods, not so common.

3. Dau'cus

Tourn. Carrot. D. Carota, L. (Common Carrot.) Found wild occasionally in old fields. In fruit the umbel becomes hollow like a bird's nest. •

4. Heracle'um

L. Cow-Parsnip. H. lanatum, Michx. Umbels large and flat. Petioles of the leaves spreading and sheathing. Leaves very large; leaflets broadly heart-shaped, deeply lobed. Low wet meadows.

5. Pastina'ca

Tourn. Parsnip. P. sati'va, L. (Common Parsnip.) Found wild in old fields and along roadsides. Leaflets shining above.

6. Peu€Ed Anum, L

1. P. nudicau'le, Nutt. Pubescent. Peduncles 3-8 inches high. Flowers white, in early spring. - N.W.

2. P. villo'sum, Nutt., has yellow flowers. - N.W.

7. Archem'ora

D.C. Cowbane. A. rig'ida, DC. Calyx 5-toothed. Involucre almost none; involucels of many small bractlets. - Sandy swamps, southwestern Ontario.

8. Archangel'ica. HofFrn. Archangelica

1. A. atropurpu'rea, Hoffm. (Angelica atropurpurea, L.) (Great Angelica.) Stem very tall (4-6 feet) and stout, dark purple. Whole plant strong-scented. Petioles much inflated at the base. - Marshes and low river-banks.

2. A. Gmel'ini, DC. Stem slightly downy at the top. Involucels about as long as the umbellets. Plant but little aromatic. - Rocky coasts; Atl Prov.

9. Conloseli'num

Fischer. Hemlock-Parsley. C. Canadense, Torr, and Gr. Stem 2-4 feet high. Petioles much inflated. Leaflets of the involucels awl-shaped-- Swamps.

10. Thaspium

Nutt. Meadow-Parsnip. 1. T. au'reum, Nutt. Stem 1-2 feet high, angular-furrowed. Leaflets oblong-lanceolate, sharply serrate. Flowers deep yellow. Fruit with 10 winged ridges, or in var.

Apterum with 10 ribs. - Dry or rich woods. •

Var. trifoliatum, Coult. and Rose, is a far western form. Leaflets crenate.

2. T. bapbino'de, Nutt. Loosely branched, pubescent on the joints. Leaflets ovate to lanceolate, coarsely cut-serrate. Flowers light yellow. - S.W. Ontario.

11. Aethu'sa

L. Fool's Parsley. AE. Cyna'pium, L. A poisonous annual, with an unpleasant odour, found occasionally in cultivated grounds.

12. Ligusticum. L. Lovage

L. Seot'icum, L. (Scotch Lovage.) Stem 1-2 feet high, simple. Leaflets ovate. Fruit narrowly oblong. - Salt marshes, Atl. sea-coast.

13. Zizia. DC. Zizia

Z. integer'rima, DC. (Pimpinella integerrima, Benth. and Hook., in Macoun's Catalogue.) Stem slender, 1-2 feet high, from a stout root stock. Involucels none. Plant strong-scented. - Rocky hill sides.

14. Cicuta. L. Water-Hemlock

1. C. maculata, L. (Spotted Cowbane. Beaver Poison.) Stem 3-6 feet high, purplish, smooth. Leaflets ovate-lanceolate, coarsely serrate, pointed. - Swamps and low grounds.

2. C. bulbif'era, L., is easily distinguished from No. 1 by bearing clusters of bulblets in the axils of the upper leaves. The leaflets, also, are linear. - Swamps and low grounds.

15. Carum

L. Caraway. C. Car'ui, L. (Caraway.) Escaped from cultivation in many places.

16. Sium

L. Water-Parsnip. S. linea're, Michx. (S. cicutcefolium, Gmelin, in Macoun's Catalogue.) Stem 2-3 feet high, smooth, furrowed. Leaf- lets varying from linear to oblong, sharply pointed and serrate. Fruit oblong or ovate, with prominent ribs. - Borders of marshes usually in the water.

17. Cryptotaenia

DC. Honewort. C. Canadensis, DC. Stem 1-2 feet high, slender. Leaflets large, ovate, doubly serrate. No involucre. - Rich woods and thickets.

18. Bupleu'rum

L. Thorough-wax. B. rotundifo'lium, L. Ballast-heaps. - Atl. Prov.

19. Muse'nium,. Nutt

M. divaricatum, Nutt. Decumbent. Leaves glabrous and shining, the divisions confluent with the winged rhachis. Rather ill-smelling herbs. - N.W.

20. Osmorrhi'za. Raf. Sweet Cicely

1. 0. longis'tylis, DC. (Smoother Sweet Cicely.) Stem reddish, nearly smooth. Leaflets sparingly pubescent, short pointed. Styles slender, nearly as long as the ovary,, recurved. - Rich woods.

2. 0. brevis'tylis, DC (Hairy Sweet Cicely.) Whole piant hairy. Leaflets taper-pointed. Stifles very short, conical. - Rich woods.

21. Co'nium. L. Poison Hemlock

C. maculatum, L. Stem smooth, spotted. Leaflets lanceolate, pinnatifid, pale green, with an offensive odour when bruised. Involucels one-sided. Inner face of the seed marked with a deep groove. - Waste places.

22. Erige'nia

Nutt. Harbinger-of-Spring. E. bulbo'sa, Nutt. Stem 4-6 inches high, from a tuber deep in the ground, producing 2 leaves, the lower radical. Leaflets much incised. Flowers few. - Alluvial soil.