1 Cassis would appear to be the name of a ville (Bouches-du-Rhone) which has a commerce of wine and fruit.

The first Ratafia was called Eau de Cerises, or cherry water. The kernels should be added to the juice of the fruit with cinnamon and mace in small quantities. This renders the composition beneficent, strengthens the brain, and banishes the vapours.

The Eau clairette de framboises is also composed of cherries, though a few strawberries are added to give the dominant flavour. It should, therefore, says the Master Distiller, be rather called Eau clairette framboise'e.

Leau clairette de groseilles has a specific virtue against biliousness.

L'eau clairette de grenade is the most agreeable of Ratafias, but has an astringent property.

L'eau clairette de coings is still more estimable than the preceding, and imparts a new activity to the limbs.

Eau clairette de Chamberri should be made of the ripest black grapes, a small quantity of spirit of wine, a little sugar, and other ingredients. In addition to giving an appetite, it rejoices the heart. The longer it is kept, as in the case with all Ratafias, the better.

The white Ratafias, or Hypoteques, should be mixed with cinnamon, mace, cloves, and coriander. Under these circumstances they render the blood balsamic The best fruits for white Ratafias are oranges, peaches, and apricots.

Curacoa derives its name from the group of small islands in the West Indies, situated near the north shore of Venezuela, in the Caribbean Sea. The liqueur is made in these islands by the Dutch. It is also made at Amsterdam from orange peel imported from the Curacoas. The bitter orange used is the Citrus bigaradia.

It is commonly obtained by digesting orange peel in sweetened spirits, and flavouring with cinnamon, cloves, or mace. The spirits employed are usually reduced to nearly 56 under proof, and each gallon contains about 3 1/2 pounds of sugar. Curacoa varies in colour. The darker is produced by powdered Brazil wood, mellowed by caramel.

Parfait Amour is a liqueur composed of several ingredients, such as citron, clove, muscat, and others.

Kirsch, Kirschwasser, or Kirschenwasser, or cherry water, is the genuine drink of the Black Forest. The head-quarters of this liqueur, as Griesbach and Peters-thai in the Reuch valley, are rich in cherry trees of the Machaleb variety. H. W.wolff, in his Rambles, rises into an almost poetic description of its virtues. " It is," he says, referring to the Black Foresters, "their general stimulant and comforter, their consoler in grief, their promoter of conviviality, their safety valve in trouble or excitement." After this, little can be added without the danger, or rather the certainty, of bathos. When genuine - for alas, it shares the common fate of drinks, adulteration - it is said to be ardent and slightly poisonous. In other words, it contains "that excellent stomachic, hydrocyanic acid." Of late the Black Foresters have rivalled the Servians in a spirit distilled from wild plums. Stollberg thinks Kirschenwasser in no way inferior to the spirit made from corn at Dantzic,1 and others hold it equal to the Dalmatian Maraschino. The liqueur is also made in Germany, France, and elsewhere.

Pomeranzen, or Pomeranzen- Wasser, somewhat resembling our orangeade, is principally drunk in Northern Germany.

Raspail was originally, as many other liqueurs, medicinal, and was so called from the name of its inventor. Mariani has made an Elixir a la coca du Perou. This, like Raspail, is an agreeable tonic.

Vermuth 2 is composed of white wine, angelica, absinthe, and other aromatic herbs.

1 Stolberg's Travels, i., 146.

2 Germ. Wermuth, absinthe or wormwood, plant of genus

Many sweet wines approach very nearly liqueurs. Of these are in Austria some sweet wines of Transylvania and Dalmatia. In Spain, the Tinto d'alicante, and the white Muscats of Malaga. In France, Hermitage, Grenache, Colmar, and the Muscats of Rivesaltes and of Roquevaire. In Cyprus, La Commanderie. In Italy, the Muscats of Vesuvius, Orvieto and Montefiascone, the holy wine of Castiglione, the white wines of Albano, and the aromatic wine of Chiavenna. In Greece, the Malmseys of Santorin and the Ionian Isles. In Russia, the wines of Koos and Sudach in the Crimea; and in Mexico, those of Passo del Nocte, Paras, San Luiz de la Paz, and Zelaya.

In the Widdowes Treasure, London, 1595, are receipts for Sirrop of Roses or Violets, and two receipts for Rosa Solis, and in the Good Housewife's Jewele, London, 1596, are receipts for distilling of Rosemary water, Imperiall water, Sinamon water, and the Water of Life.

Artemisia - perhaps originally connected with warm, on account of the warmth it produces in the stomach. This bitter, though commonly quoted under liqueurs, should be classed with Quinine Wine, Angostura, Khoosh, etc., Juglandine, made in France from the walnut, Malakoff'made in Silesia, the Shaddock and Quassia bitters of the West Indies, and the Schapps bitter of Switzerland.