The animal, when slaughtered, should be bled very thoroughly. The care taken by the Jews in this and other points draws custom from &ther sects to their markets. The skin is tanned for leather, and the fat is used for candles and other purposes. The tail is used for soups, and the liver, heart, and tripe are also used for cooking. The body is split into two parts, through the back-bone, and each half is divided as marked in the drawing on following page. There are diverse modes of cutting and naming the parts, butchers in New England, in New York, in the South, and in the West, all making some slight differences; but the following is the most common method.

Fig. 1.

Fig. 1.

1. The head: frequently used for mince-pies; sometimes it is tried out for oil, and then the bones are used for fertilizers. The horns are used to make buttons and combs, and various other things. 2. The neck; used for soups and stews. 3. The chuck-rib, or shoulder, having four ribs. It is used for corning, stews, and soup, and some say the best steaks are from this piece. 4. The front of the shoulder, or the shoulder-clod, which is sometimes called the brisket. 5. The back of the shoulder; used for corning, soups, and stews. G. The fore-shin, or leg; used for soups. 7,7. The plate-pieces; the front one is called the brisket, (as is also 4,) and is used for corning, soups, and stews. The back plate-piece is called the flank, and is divided into the thick flank, or upper sirloin, and the lower flank. These are for roasting and corning. 8. The standing ribs, divided into first, second, and third cuts; used for roasting. The second cut is the best of the three. 9. The sirloin, which is the best roasting piece. 10. The sirloin steak and the porter-house steak; used for broiling. 11. The rump, or aitch-bone; used for soup or corning, or to cook a la mode. 12. The round, or buttock; used for corning, or for a la mode; also for dried beef. 13. The hock, or hind shank; used for soups.

In selecting Beef, choose that which has a loose grain, easily yielding to pressure, of a clear red, with whitish fat. If the lean is purplish, and the fat yellow, it is poor beef. Beef long kept turns a darker color than fresh killed. Stall-fed beef has a lighter color than grass-fed.

Ox beef is the best, and next, that of a heifer.

In cold weather, it is economical to buy a hind quarter; have it cut up, and what is not wanted immediately, pack-with snow in a barrel. All meats grow tender by keeping. Do not let meats freeze; if they do, thaw them in cold water, and do not cook them till fully thawed. A piece weighing ten pounds requires ten or twelve hours to thaw.