Sterilization of food and all apparatus by the boiling temperature, 212° F. The removal of moisture by some drying process. The addition of a preservative. Sealing, to prevent the entrance of air.

Practical methods.

Canning

Fruit or vegetables sterilized at 212° F. and tightly sealed in jars or cans.

Preserving

Whole fruit, sterilized, large amount of sugar added, and sealed or covered in jars. Jam making. - Fruit broken up, sterilized, sugar added, and covered.

Fig. 32.   Preserving kettles in a large factory.

Fig. 32. - Preserving kettles in a large factory.

Jelly Making

Fruit juices, sterilized, sugar added, covered.

Pickling

Fruit and vegetables sterilized, vinegar, spices, and sugar the preservatives used.

Drying

Fruits and vegetables protected from dust and insects, and slowly dried by the sun's heat or artificial heat.

Apparatus

Scales. Quart measure. A preserving kettle of good enamel ware. Plated knives. Large spoon of enamel or wood. Tablespoon and table fork. Pint and quart cans with glass tops fastened by springs. New rubber rings. Jelly glasses with covers. Cloth jelly bag. Stick on which to hang the bag. Large bowl. Boiler, in which to stand the cans. A funnel. A dipper. Old towels, or cheap cloths. Saucer and spoon for testing.