This section is from the book "Save It For Winter.", by Frederick Fry Rockwell. Also available from Amazon: Save It For Winter; Modern Methods Of Canning, Dehydrating, Preserving And Storing Vegetables And Fruit For Winter Use, With Comments On The Best ... For Saving, And When And How To Grow Them.
Wash and scrape; blanch sufficiently to loosen skin, or 4 or 5 minutes. Prepare brine of 2 per cent, salt and 3 per cent. sugar; or in place of brine make to taste with salt, sugar, butter and water; process as directed for Beets. Or add lemon juice - 4 ounces per gallon of brine-and process for 1 hour.
Use only firm clean heads; before canning, soak in cold brine - 1/2 pound salt to 12 quarts of water-for an hour or so; remove from brine and blanch 3 minutes; remove stems and divide sufficiently to pack in containers; handle carefully; pack as tightly as possible without mashing; cover with 3 per cent, brine or fill with boiling water; add a teaspoonful of salt for each quart jar. Process for one hour at 212 degrees, or 20 minutes at 15 pounds of steam pressure. Or add lemon juice to brine, as for Asparagus, and process for 45 minutes.
First of all, be absolutely sure that you have fresh, edible mushrooms: remember that many lives are lost every year because people "think" they know mush-rooms. Even when you are sure you have the right kind, they must be canned immediately after gathering, wash and stem, removing loose skin. If they are small, they can be canned whole; if large they should be cut into sections. Blanch in boiling water for 5 minutes; pack in glass or enamel cans; cover with 2 to 3 per cent, brine. Process at 212 degrees for 1 1/2 hours, or at 15 pounds pressure for 30 minutes, wrap jars to protect from light, when opening, remove from cans immediately and use as soon as possible.
Use young pods, wash in cold water; blanch 20 minutes; slice across the pods; discard stem ends and tough pieces; cover with 3 per cent, brine, and process as for Green Beans.
Wash, blanch and cut okra as above; place in an enamel kettle and mix with equal part of peeled and cored tomato. Bring to a boil and cook for 15 minutes; process for about half the time required for okra as above.
These are not usually canned, but they may be treated in the same way as Carrots.
While these may be canned with the skins on for home use, the skin may be separated from the meat easily by baking in a hot open oven until the skin separates; or by blanching for 3 minutes or so in boiling water to which soda-lye has been added-at the rate of 3 ounces per gallon-and chilled by dipping immediately into very cold water. For canning without peeling, remove stems and seed cores and dip in boiling water a few minutes to soften the meat so that they can be folded and packed into the jars tightly; cover with boiling water or 2 per cent, brine.
As sweet potatoes do not. keep readily, and can often be bought rather cheaply in the fall, it is then profitable to can them. Place in boiling water long enough to soften the skin; dip in cold water; peel; pack whole or in slices; cover with light brine.
Pumpkin may be saved readily; as it is in demand throughout the year as a vegetable and for the making of pies, it is a good vegetable to put up. Use only the small "sugar" pumpkin. Clean; cut into sections, and place in boiling water until soft; scrape off flesh and pulp through a colander; and heat again to boiling temperature, preferably in a double-boiler to avoid possibility of scorching; pack while hot, filling the jars not quite full. Process for 1 hour at 10 pounds pressure.
Clean the pumpkins; cut the flesh up into cubes; and pack cold into containers; cover with hot combination brine containing 2 2/3 ounces of salt and 4 ounces of lemon juice for a gallon. So prepared, the pumpkin will need a little further cooking when wanted for use, but will keep well and have good flavor and appearance.
This is one of the easiest of all vegetables to prepare and keep by canning. Naturally very acid, it resists the action of bacteria. The stalks, after being washed, may be cut into short sections of an inch or an inch and a half in length, or in pieces that will just go into the container, to be packed like asparagus. Jars or enamel cans should be sterilized before being packed. Fill with water and process for 10 minutes at 10 pounds pressure, or 30 minutes at 212 degrees.
Same process as for Carrots.
Blanch three minutes; pack solidly in jars or cans; add brine and process as for Green Beans.
Prepare the same as Pumpkin.
See under Beans.
wash and pare small turnips; cut into cubes; bring to a boil in plain water for about 30 minutes and pass through colander; add salt and white pepper to taste; and pack hot. Process for 20 minutes at 15 pounds pressure.
To put up by cold-pack method, prepare and process as for Carrots.
See under Greens.