There are two general classes of cakes - Sponge Cakes and Butter Cakes.

Sponge Cakes are made light wholly by the presence of eggs lightly beaten and are usually made without baking powder, butter, or liquid. Sponge cakes include:

Sponge Cake proper, made with the whole egg.

Sunshine Cakes, in which the whites and only a few of the yolks are used.

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White Sponge Cakes or Angel Food, in which only the whites of eggs are used.

Mock Sponge Cakes contain some milk, water, or baking powder.

Butter Cakes are made with butter and resemble other batters, except that the butter, sugar, and eggs are usually larger in amount, and the texture of the baked batter is much finer and more tender than in muffins and quick breads.

Rules for Cakes

No. I Pans - For butter cakes, the pans may be thoroughly greased with the same kind of fat that is to be used in the mixture, or sprinkled with flour or lined with greased paper.

For sponge cakes the pans should be clean, smooth, and dry.

No. II Materials - Pastry flour should be used in all cakes. If bread flour must be used, make the measure scant.

Fine granulated sugar, good butter or other sweet fat, and fresh eggs should be used.

No. 111 Utensils - Use an earthen bowl, never a tin basin for mixing cakes. Stir with a wooden spoon or spatula, and use a dover egg beater or wire whip for beating.

No. IV Method of Combining - The method of mixing cake will vary with the materials and the proportions in which they are used.

In general sponge cakes are combined by cutting and folding all the other ingredients into well-beaten egg whites; butter cakes are combined by adding all other ingredients to well-creamed fat.

No. V Oven - The oven should be hot enough to brown a small piece of white unglazed paper to golden brown or Manila color in 2 1/2 minutes for layer cake

3 minutes for chocolate cake and ginger bread. 3 1/2 minutes for loaf cake.

4 minutes for sponge cake.

5 minutes for Angel Food Cake and Meringues.

No. VI Baking - The time for baking will vary with the size, shape, and kind of cake.

Sponge cake should cook from 40 minutes to 1 hour.

A butter cake should cook 20-30 minutes in a shallow layer pan.

20-25 minutes in individual muffin pans.

40-60 minutes in a loaf pan.

Tests for Baking

1 The cake shrinks from the sides of the pan.

2 The crust springs back when touched with the finger.

3 The loud ticking sound ceases.

4 A needle will come out clean if the cake is pierced.

5 The cake is nicely browned.

No. VII Care After Baking - When a butter cake is removed from the oven, let it stand in the pan about 3 minutes, then loosen with a spatula, and turn it gently on to a wire cake cooler. Remove paper and leave until cool. Do not handle the cake while hot.

A sponge cake should be left in the pan until cold. Invert the pan so that the air can pass around it. When cooled, loosen well with a spatula.

Keep in a clean, ventilated tin box in a cool, dry place.