A Table giving the temperatures of boiling sugar sirup at its various stages will be found on page 12.

Fillings - A filling is defined as "something that serves to fill up a space or cavity." In connection with cakes, the word is used to designate a soft, sweetened, cooked or uncooked mixture that will spread easily. It is usually put between layers to hold them together, or is put into a cavity in a cake; but occasionally it is spread over the top and sides of a cake. Sometimes a frosting is used between the layers instead of a filling.

Frosting and Icing - A frosting is a preparation of sugar and a liquid, which may or may not be combined with egg, and may be cooked or uncooked. The term is derived from the fact that the first sugar decorations of this sort were uncolored and gave the effect of hoar-frost. The word is now used to mean any sweet covering applied to cakes, whether white or colored.

Icing has been used interchangeably with the word "frosting" but more often in reference to the uncooked frostings. In the beginning the word was probably used because the substance looked like ice, being translucently white instead of frostily white. Therefore, it may be desirable to use the word "icing" to mean a thin mixture of confectioners' sugar and a liquid, spread on to give a glazed surface; and to keep the term "frosting" for a thicker, more opaque coating.