Meat cooked by broiling is exposed to a greater heat than in any other manner of cooking, and to prevent its burning, requires constant watching. Meats for broiling are cut thin, and much surface is exposed, therefore they must be at once exposed to intense heat to sear the surface and retain the juices. Frequent turning not only prevents burning, but gives slower cooking and also prevents the grease dripping into the fire, making a smoke which destroys the flavor of the meat. The rule for broiling is to have bright coals without flame, drafts open to carry off smoke, and meat turned as often as one counts ten (see broiling beefsteak, page 156). In this way the result will be satisfactory, the meat will be puffed and elastic from the confined steam of the juices, will have a seared crust, and the rest evenly cooked through and of the same color. When the puffed appearance of broiled meats begins to disappear it means the moisture is evaporating through the crust, which will leave it hard and dry.

Chops wrapped tight in oiled paper before being broiled are especially good (see page 166). The paper will not burn if turned as directed above.

Although broiling with a double wire-broiler over or under bright coals is the approved way, it can be accomplished in a hot pan when coals are not accessible. In this instance a frying-pan is heated very hot, then rubbed with suet to prevent the meat from sticking, and the meat is turned frequently as in the other method. This manner of broiling is recommended only as an expedient, as hot iron does not give the same result as hot coals.