Calfs-Head Or Mock-Turtle Soup

Make a brown roux by putting in a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter, let it brown, add two tablespoonfuls of flour, and let that brown; then add, slowly at first, one and a half or two quarts of water in which a calfs head has been boiled, white wine instead of vinegar being used in the boiling (see boiled calfs head, page 175). Add three or four strained tomatoes and simmer for one half hour. Skim off any fat and season with salt and pepper. Add some pieces of boiled calfs head cut in pieces one half inch square, a few egg balls, two or three tablespoonfuls of sherry, and a few very thin slices of lemon.

Fish Stock

Put into the soup-pot a tablespoonful of butter or of drippings. Add a tablespoonful each of chopped onion, carrot, and turnip. Fry them without browning, then add fish-bones, head, and trimmings, a stalk of celery, sprigs of parsley and of thyme, a bay-leaf, a tomato or a slice of lemon. Cover with water, and simmer them for an hour or more. Season with salt and pepper. Strain.

When this stock is used for soup, make a roux of one tablespoonful each of butter and flour, add a cupful of milk or cream, and add this amount to each pint of the fish stock.

Oyster Soup

Scald a quart, or twenty-five, oysters in their own liquor. As soon as they are plump, or the gills curl, remove them (oysters harden if boiled). Add to the liquor a cupful of water. Make a roux of one tablespoonful each of butter and flour, dilute it with the liquor, and when it is smooth add a cupful of scalded milk or cream. Season with pepper, salt, if necessary, and a dash of cayenne or paprica; then add the oysters, and as soon as they are heated serve at once. In oyster houses finely shredded cabbage with a French dressing is served with oyster soup, and is a good accompaniment when served for luncheon. Oysters should be carefully examined, and the liquor passed through a fine sieve before being cooked, in order to remove any pieces of shell there may be in them.

Clam Soup

Remove the clams from the shells as soon as they have opened (see clam broth, page 100). Put them in a warm place, until the juice is prepared. Add a cupful of hot milk to a quart of juice, and thicken it with a roux made of one tablespoonful of butter and one tablespoonful of flour; then add the clams, chopped fine, season, and bring the soup again to the boiling-point and serve. Two spoonfuls of whipped cream served on each plateful of soup is an improvement to the dish.

Cream Soups Onion Soup

(A Very Simple Soup Quickly Made)

Slice two or three large onions; fry them in a tablespoonful of butter or drippings until they are soft and red, then add three tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir until it is a little cooked. To this add slowly a pint of boiling water, stirring all the time, so it will be smooth.

Boil and mash three good-sized potatoes. Add to them slowly a quart of scalded milk, stirring well so it will be smooth. Add the potato and milk mixture to the onion mixture. Season with salt and pepper. Let it get very hot, and pass it through a strainer into the tureen. Sprinkle over the top a little parsley chopped very fine, and a few croutons. The soup will be better if stock is used instead of water to dilute the onion mixture.

Potato Soup

Boil and mash three or four potatoes.

Make a roux of one tablespoonful of butter, one half tablespoonful of flour, and one teaspoonful of chopped onion, letting the onion cook in the butter a few minutes before adding the flour. When the roux is cooked add to it a pint of milk, making a thin, white sauce. Add this to the mashed potato and pass the whole through a strainer. Return it to the fire for a few minutes to heat and blend it. Season it with salt and pepper.

Sprinkle on the soup, when it is in the tureen, a teaspoonful of chopped parsley and a few croutons.

If the soup is too thick, add a little more milk or a little hot water. The roux prevents the milk and potato from separating, and also gives it smoothness. The soup can be made richer by-using more milk, and stirring into it, just before serving, the beaten yolks of two eggs. This soup may also be made of sweet potatoes.