The Hornbeam - one of the old indigenous trees of England, and among the very best for firewood - is, judging from what I notice, very little planted now and rarely named in catalogues. And yet for many purposes it is useful and beautiful. It stands the knife to any extent, and makes most satisfactory hedges.

In my last book I spoke of Pergolas - those covered walks made with poles, or columns of bricks or stone, and overgrown with creepers of all kinds. Now I would speak of the'Charmilles' - walks either of turf or gravel covered over with arches of growing trees, with no supports or wires or wood, merely the interlacing of the boughs till they grow thick overhead with continual pruning. There is a little short walk of this kind at Hampton Court - I forget how it is made (I mean, with what trees it is planted) - and in the Boboli Gardens at Florence there are endless varieties, as everyone knows, of these covered walks. They would be very beautiful on the north or east side of many a sunny lawn; and if a garden were too small for such a walk, there might still be room for an occasional self-forming arch, which adds mystery and charm to any garden. It could be made either with Hornbeam, Beech, or (perhaps best of all in light soil) Mountain Ash, which flowers - and berries too - all the better for judicious pruning, and which could make a support as well for Honeysuckle or a climbing Rose. This kind of planting to gain deep shade can be done over a seat, and would not take very long to grow into a natural arbour. A Weeping Hornbeam - which, I suppose, must be a modern gardening invention, as it is not mentioned in Loudon's very comprehensive 'Arboretum et Fruticetum ' - is also a splendid tree for a sunny lawn; and in the female plant the long, loose, pendulous catkins are very attractive. The seeds ripen in October, and the bunches or cones which contain them should be gathered by hand when the nuts are ready to drop out. The nuts separate easily from the envelope, and if sown at once will come up the following spring. All this sounds rather slow, for in these days people buy all they want and never wait. Messrs. Veitch sell both kinds of Hornbeams, and even tall, well-grown plants of the Weeping kind are not expensive.

'Bosquets, or groves, are so called from bouquet, a nosegay; and I believe gardeners never meant anything else by giving this term to this compartment, which is a sort of green knot, formed by branches and leaves of trees that compose it placed in rows opposite each other.' The author of 'The Retired Gardener' then adds: 'I have named a great many compartments in which Hornbeam is made use of; yet methinks none of them look so beautiful and magnificent as a gallery with arches.'