The child is wrapped in the bath towel and dried. The mackintosh and towel are then removed, and the really difficult process of dressing a very young baby is safely and easily performed on the pillow. I saw it done by a young and inexperienced nurserymaid of nineteen, who certainly could never have been trusted to wash a baby as we do it in England, and I came away greatly impressed with the merits of the chaff pillow.

A favourite trick practised by those who have charge of babies is to cover or nearly cover over their faces, so that the child breathes its own breath, which all educated people know is poisonous. When you expostulate, the nurse says: 'It makes the child sleep better' - which means the child is more or less asphyxiated by want of air. This excuse could be urged for anything, even for giving what, when I was in Canada, I saw advertised everywhere as 'sirop calmant de Madame Winslow.' The wretched stuff acquires a new dignity when translated into French! Fresh air, night and day, is the great essential for health; and, pretty as are babies' veils, I think the babies are far better without them. All the same I saw a lovely little baby's hood last year, made in a close-fitting way, like an old-fashioned baby's cap, and over all was thrown a large square of net hemmed and run with three rows of baby satin ribbon.

The public mind has been a good deal disturbed and exercised by the Bill, passed in '98, enabling people who have 'conscientious objections' to be absolved from having their children vaccinated. I should like to see all vaccination voluntary, as it seems to me to be exceedingly likely that the last scientific word on the subject has not been said. But if it is really for the good of the community that vaccination should be universally enforced, then the 'conscientious objector' is a danger to the whole community, and should not be allowed to have his way. Anybody interested in this subject will find in the twenty-fourth volume of the 'EncycloŠpdia Britannica' (ninth edition) an exhaustive article on vaccination, which, the writer says, is 'the result of an independent and laborious research.' To me it was interesting and most instructive. The public now have such glorious chances of learning the truth, instead of living on false tradition; but how few avail themselves of them! The statements at the end of the article about the epidemic of smallpox in 1870-71 are most curious, and certainly contradict many of the usual medical assertions.

To return to the babies. Anxious young mothers with delicate infants are nowadays very apt to get hospital nurses to look after them. I am sure that is a mistake, and I have known two or three cases amongst my acquaintances where this was tried and answered extremely badly. The hospital nurse is apt to be over-clever, and try far too many things, such as changing the foods unnecessarily, and using medicines much too freely. A baby wants ordinary animal care, warmth, regularity of treatment, and the people who look after it to have the courage that comes with love. It does not want remedies which check ailments one day and reproduce them the next day with renewed force. Why does it never strike the mother or nurse, who gives a child - with absolute courage - a harmful drug such as fluid magnesia, that they could try instead such harmless remedies as spoonfuls of orange-juice, or apples or prunes rubbed through a sieve? A doctor told me the other day that a child brought up on fluid magnesia was bound to suffer from that troublesome if not dangerous ailment too well known in most modern nurseries, chronic constipation.

If a child is very delicate, the mother nervous, and if no good experienced children's nurse is to be got, then I would recommend a monthly nurse; though, of course, they too are sometimes difficult to get. There is an institution now started, called the Norland Institute, 16 Holland Park Terrace, London, W., and the Principal will send all information if requested. It is for the training of ladies as children's nurses on Froebelian principles. I do not know much about it myself, but it appears to be useful both for employers and employed. So many women, though willing enough, are unfit for any employment through want of training, and many a young woman would be an excellent nurse for young children who could never make a good governess or school-teacher.

Nursery arrangements are much cleaner now than they used to be. A well cared-for baby has its little gums wiped out every day with a soft rag, which is then burnt. This plan is safer than the soft little bit of sponge sold for the purpose, as sponges are difficult to keep perfectly clean, even if well washed and dried. The following is the receipt for the mixture with which this should be done, and which makes the baby smack its lips: Mix one teaspoonful of powdered borax with two teaspoonfuls of cold water, and add three ounces of glycerine. Shake the bottle well, and the mixture is ready for use. In the case of a baby that has been neglected, and when the mouth has become really bad, it should be washed out with warm water several times a day after food.

There is still a strong prejudice in England against boiling and sterilising milk; but, in the face of the recent revelations as regards tuberculosis in cows, I trust this will become less and less. The German patents are to be got at all chemists'. Soxhlet's apparatus is one of the best, I believe, but new sterilisers are constantly being brought out; and when once understood the process gives no more trouble than any other careful preparation of babies' food. To give children and invalids raw milk does seem a most cruel risk. I know many young people who say they would rather die than drink boiled milk. If they were brought up from babyhood on cooked milk, I am sure that this feeling would disappear. I copy the following extract on this subject of milk-sterilising from a lecture (published in the 'Journal of State Medicine,' January 1899) on 'The Administrative Control of Tuberculosis,' by Sir Richard Thorne Thorne, Medical Officer of the Local Government Board, as it interests and concerns far more people than the mere management and health of cows, although this is the chief point of Sir Richard's clear and admirable lecture. The extract may seem rather long, but I feel compelled to copy it, as it may in that way reach homes where the more scientific periodical may never have been heard of: 'It is a somewhat curious fact that the inhabitants of the United Kingdom stand almost alone amongst civilised nations in the habitual use of uncooked milk as food. This is the more to be regretted because, by reason of this practice, human life, especially that of infancy and childhood, is being sacrificed on a scale which, to use the mildest term, is altogether deplorable. That this should be so is also altogether unreasonable in the face of the certain knowledge we possess, and which is set forth in the report of the Royal Commission of 1890 in the following words: "The most deadly tubercular material can be rendered absolutely innocuous, in so far as any spreading of infective disease is concerned, by the action of a temperature at which water boils." And again: "It is sufficient to state that boiling, for an instant even, renders the tubercle bacillus absolutely innocuous." Milk exposed to a temperature of 100° C, whether by boiling or other form of cooking, will not convey tuberculosis; and milk sterilised, as by placing it over the fire in one saucepan, which stands in an outer one filled with water, until it has reached a temperature of some 80° C. to 90° C, i.e. 176° F., or perhaps even less, is an equally innocuous food. And yet, whilst we have this knowledge at our disposal, and whilst we know still further that some 7,000 persons, mostly infants, are annually killed in England and Wales by that form of tuberculosis called "labis mesenterica," besides some thousands more by tubercular meningitis - a cause of tuberculous death which is on the increase under three months of age, is undergoing no diminution at the next three months of life, and which exhibits substantial increase during young adult life - and yet we find people apparently intelligent, including even heads of young families, who discard the remedy on the mere ground of "taste." And what is still more striking and reprehensible is the fact that in many of our hospitals, established for the cure of disease, no effort is made to avoid the chance of imparting disease, merely because effort would cause some inconvenience. The avoidance of all that is septic in connection with surgical operations stands in striking contrast with the courting of infection in the wards by the use of uncooked milk. But even the taste which attaches to boiled milk, and to which infants become at once habituated, may be largely avoided if the milk boiled after the morning delivery be stored in the cool for use in the afternoon, and if the afternoon milk be similarly set aside until next morning.