This section is from the book "Experimental Cookery From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint", by Belle Lowe. Also available from Amazon: Experimental cookery.
Beat enough egg whites at one time to prepare 1/2 of the full recipe. Add cream of tartar and salt for 1/2 the full recipe. The first portion is to determine the effect of too little beating of the white so that the egg white can be weighed with as little beating as desired. Weigh out 38 grams of the beaten white and use the remainder for 2 and 3. Divide the work so that each girl does the same operation on each cake.
2. Continue beating the egg white from C1, until it is about the same stiffness as that used under A and B. Weigh out 38 grams.
Add the sugar and the flour as in C1.
Character of crust
Size of cells
Size of cell walls
3. Beat the remaining egg white from C2, until it is very stiff, dry, and flaky. Weigh out 38 grams. Add the sugar and the flour as in C1.
Would longer mixing of the egg white in C1 partially overcome the lack of sufficient beating of the egg whites?
D. To determine the effect of varying the proportion of cream of tartar used in angel cake, and the method of adding the cream of tartar.
1. Prepare 1/6 of the recipe for a control. Add the sugar by method and number of strokes found best under A and the flour with the number of strokes found best under B.
2. Repeat D1, but omit the cream of tartar.
3. Repeat D1, but increase the cream of tartar to 2 teaspoons for the full recipe.
4. Repeat D1, but omit adding the cream of tartar to the egg. Sift the flour and the cream of tartar together 2 or 3 times, before adding the flour to the egg and sugar mixture.
E. To determine the effect of increasing the proportion of sugar used in the cake. (Formula II.)
1. Increase the sugar for the full recipe to 1 1/2 cups. Beat enough egg whites for 1/2 the full recipe. Add salt and cream of tartar for 1/2 the full recipe. Beat the egg whites by method and amount found best under A, but leave them slightly under-beaten. Add the flour with number of strokes found best under B.
2. Beat the remainder of the egg whites from E1, the amount used in other experiments. Weigh out 38 grams and repeat E1.
3. Beat the remainder of the egg white from E2, until very dry and flaky. Weigh out 42 grams. Repeat E1.
When the sugar in the recipe is increased, should the egg white be beaten longer to coagulate a larger proportion, thus giving greater rigidity to hold the added sugar, or does over-beating lessen the rigidity of the egg white? What would be the effect of increasing the mixing of the sugar and the egg white? May the flour be increased to 107 grams when the sugar is increased to 1 1/2 cups?
F. To determine the effect of reducing the proportion of flour in the standard recipe.
Reduce the flour for full recipe to 90 grams. Prepare 1/6 the recipe. Use meringue or standard method or both for beating eggs, beating an amount to give a desirable cake. Add flour as found best under B. If you think it advisable repeat the experiment reducing the flour to 80 grams.
G. To determine the effect of different baking temperatures.
Prepare 1/2 the full recipe following directions under F and using amount of flour found most desirable. Divide the batter into 3 equal portions. Bake one cake at 160°C. (320°F.), the second at 175°C. (357°F.), and the third at 190°C. (375°F.).
H. Use formula III, p. 360. Use any or all methods that may yield a palatable cake. Compare volume, texture and tenderness with cakes from the standard recipe.
I. Repeat H, using formula IV, p. 360.
J. Repeat H, using formula V, p. 360.
To determine the factors which influence the texture of sponge cakes. Recipe:
Sugar.............. 1 cup
Pastry flour......... 1 cup
Lemon juice........ 1 tablespoon
Water.............. 2 tablespoons
200 grams 100 grams
30 grams 288 grams, yolks 108 grams, whites 180 grams
Lemon rind......... 1 tablespoon grated
Salt................ 1/8 teaspoon
A. Method of mixing.
1. Prepare 1/6 of the recipe. Bake at 160°C. (320°F.). Beat the egg yolk. Add the sugar, the lemon juice, the grated lemon rind, the water, and the salt. Beat until light, foamy, and lemon colored. Add the flour. Keep a record of the number of strokes used for mixing the flour. Beat the egg whites until they flow slowly when the bowl is partially inverted. Combine by folding the beaten whites into the egg and flour mixture. Keep a record of the number of strokes used for folding the egg whites in the flour mixture.
2. Beat the whole egg until light and foamy. Add the sugar gradually, then the lemon juice, lemon rind, water, and salt. Beat until light. Sift a portion of the flour over the top of the egg mixture and fold in. Continue until all the flour is used. Keep a record of the number of strokes used in folding the flour.
3. Add the lemon juice, lemon rind, water, and salt to the sugar. Stir until well mixed. Add the unbeaten egg yolk to the sugar and beat until light and lemon colored. Add the flour. Keep a record of the number of strokes used in mixing the flour. Beat the egg white until it flows slowly when the bowl is partially inverted. Add to the flour mixture, keeping a record of the number of strokes used for folding the egg whites.
4. Prepare 1/2 of the recipe. Make a sirup of 1/2 cup of sugar and 1/2 cup of water. Cook to 118°C. and pour slowly over the beaten egg whites. Beat the egg white while adding the sirup. Cool. Beat the egg yolks, adding the lemon juice, lemon rind, and salt to the yolks. Fold the beaten yolks into the egg white. Keep a record of the amount of folding used for the egg yolks. Sift a portion of the flour over the egg mixture. Fold in. Continue adding the flour until it is all folded into the egg mixture. Keep a record of the number of strokes used for folding the flour. Omit the 2 tablespoons of water in the recipe.
B. Variations in amount of mixing the flour and the egg white.
Repeat the series under A, but increase or decrease the number of strokes used in folding the flour and the sugar so as to obtain the best texture in the cake.
C. Vary the baking temperature.