Varying the proportion of flour. If the flour is very dry a better texture is obtained when the flour is reduced. If the proportion of flour in the plain cake is increased the tendency to tunnel is increased. The cake is drier and more solid. The volume is good. When the flour in the plain cake recipe is increased to 3 1/2 cups, Experiment 84F,7, Fig. 75, the tenacity of the batter becomes very great. As the gluten is developed by mixing, long strands show in the batter when the mixing spoon is pulled through it. Often after mixing 1000 strokes ribbons of batter from 1/4 to 3/4 inclined in width and over a foot long will form when the batter is allowed to drop from the spoon.

Balancing cake formulas. Various ways and means are suggested for balancing cake formulas. The single variation of the plain recipe in the experimental outline that usually gives the most acceptable cake is to increase the sugar from 1 to 1 1/2 cups. This recipe is Formula 1 in Table 58.

Bakers have different rules for balancing cake formulas, but they state there will always be exceptions to these rules. They also mix larger quantities in one batch than the housewife, often 20 to 50 pounds or more at one time. It is well known that in large-quantity cookery the proportion of liquid must be decreased, or if a very small portion of the recipe is made, the liquid must be increased. In many instances the rules given in bakery trade journals sift down to the following or similar suggestions.

Cakes Part 11 149Cakes Part 11 150Cakes Part 11 151

Fig. 74. - Cake. Showing the effect on texture of increasing the sugar in the plain cake recipe from 1 to 2 cups. Experiment 84F,4. As shown in the illustration the cakes are about seven-ninths actual size.

150 grams of the batter removed and baked after mixing,

1. The weight of the fat should not be over one-half the weight of the sugar.

2. The weight of the fat should not exceed the weight of the eggs.

Cakes Part 11 152Cakes Part 11 153Cakes Part 11 154

Fig. 74.

1. 50 strokes.

2. 150 strokes.

3. 300 strokes.

4. 400 strokes.

5. 1000 strokes.

6. 1500 strokes.

3. The weight of the sugar should not exceed the weight of the flour.

4. The weight of the liquid (milk plus eggs, not weight of dried milk or eggs) should equal the weight of the flour.

Cakes Part 11 155Cakes Part 11 156Cakes Part 11 157

Fig. 75.- Cake. Showing effect on texture and volume of increasing the flour in the plain cake recipe from 3 to 3 1/2 cups. Experiment 84F,7. Illustration is about seven-ninths actual size of cakes.

150 grams of the batter removed and baked after mixing,

Table 58 gives four formulas. The first is a recipe commonly used for plain cake. In the second the only change is the reduction of the liquid to accord with the rules given above. In the third the fat, eggs, and milk are changed to the nearest most easily measurable quantities for a richer cake.

Cakes Part 11 158Cakes Part 11 159Cakes Part 11 160

Fig. 75.

1. 50 strokes.

2. 100 strokes.

3. 150 strokes.

4. 300 strokes.

5. 400 strokes.

6. 1000 strokes.

Chocolate cake. Probably the question most often asked the author concerning chocolate cake is how to obtain a red one. The usual reply before answering the query is, "Why do you want a red chocolate cake?"

Chocolate. For a better understanding of the action of chocolate some knowledge of its production is necessary. Chocolate is obtained from cacao beans of the cacao tree. The term cacao is used to refer to the raw material until the press cake stage. The term cocoa refers to the powder. The beans are cut from the pods, placed in piles, and fermented. Fermentation reduces the bitterness of the chocolate. After fermentation the beans are roasted.

Table 58 Formulas for Plain Cake

Ingredients

Formula I

Formula II

Formula III

Formula IV

Meas-ure

Weight, grams

Meas-ure

Weight, grams

Meas-ure

Weight, grams

Meas-ure

Weight, grams

Butter

1/2. c

112

1/2 c.

112

5/8 c.

140

3/8 c.

84

Sugar

1 1/2 c.

300

1 1/2 c.

300

1 1/2 c.

300

1 1/2 c.

300

Eggs

2

96

2

96

3

144

1 1/2

72

Flour

3 c.

300

3 c.

300

3 c.

300

3 c.

300

Milk

1 c.

244

5 6 c.

204

5/8 c.

156

1 1/8 c.

274

Baking pow-der

3 t.

8-12

3 t.

8-10

3 t.

8-10

3 1/2 t.

10-14

Flavoring

1 t.

1 t.

1 t.

1 t.

Salt

1/2 t.

1/2 t.

1/2 t.

1/2 t.

After being roasted the beans are shelled and cracked. The cracked beans are called nibs. The roasting brings out the flavor, but Zenlea states that the flavor of the chocolate is dependent upon the skill used in blending, milling, and conching of the various varieties of nibs with the proper quantity of sugar and cocoa butter, milk solids, when used, and added flavors. There are approximately 30 varieties of cocoa beans commonly used and Zenlea says the nibs of these beans vary in color, chocolate character, pungency, acidity, mildness, bitterness, and creaminess. The blended nibs are ground, a temperature just above 32°C. (90°F.) being maintained during grinding, this temperature and the pressure rendering the product fluid. This chocolate liquor, which contains over 50 per cent of cocoa butter, is run into molds and cooled for chocolate, forming the bitter chocolate for household and commercial uses. In the "Service and Regulatory Announcements" of the Food and Drug Administration chocolate, plain chocolate, bitter chocolate, chocolate liquor, chocolate paste, bitter chocolate grating, all are defined as the solid or plastic mass obtained by grinding cacao nibs. Sweet chocolate, sweet chocolate coating, is chocolate mixed with sugar and/or dextrose, with or without the addition of cacao butter, spices, or other flavoring materials. But the proportion of sugar mixed with the chocolate liquor may vary from none to about 68 per cent.

The cocoa beans before being ground vary in color from a very light brown, or nearly gray, to a deep red brown. Thus the color of the chocolate or cocoa may vary because of the different colored beans from which it is made. A higher roast also gives a darker color. Alkali-treated chocolate is also darker than natural-processed chocolate.