This section is from the book "Experimental Cookery From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint", by Belle Lowe. Also available from Amazon: Experimental cookery.
To determine the factors affecting the smoothness of Hollandaise sauce. Recipe:
Butter................... 1/2 cup 112 grams
Egg yolks................. 2 36 grams
Hot water................ 1/3 cup
Vinegar.................. 1 tablespoon
Salt..................... 1/4 teaspoon
Paprika.................. few grains
1. Melt the butter in the top part of a double boiler. When melted remove from the heat and add the well-beaten egg yolks, stirring until blended with the butter. Add other ingredients and return to the double boiler. Heat slowly and stir continually. Remove samples at the following temperatures, 72°, 74°, 76°, 78°, and 80°C. If mixture has not separated at 80°C, continue to remove samples until curdled.
2. Repeat 1, but do not beat the egg yolks before adding to the butter.
3. Repeat 1, but increase the egg yolks to 4.
4. Repeat 3, but omit the water and increase vinegar to 2 tablespoons.
5. Substitute lemon juice for any of the above. Compare smoothness and consistency of the different sauces. Compare the flavor.
To determine the factors that affect the texture of omelets. Recipe :
Liquid......... 1 tablespoon 15 cc.
Salt........ 1/8 teaspoon
Butter...... 1/2 tablespoon 7 grams
Directions for mixing and baking.
The first omelets should not be used for comparisons for experiments. The omelets should be made over several times if necessary to acquire the technic and the manipulation necessary to make a good omelet.
Separate the white and the yolk of the egg. Beat the yolk until it will mix well when folded in the white. Beat the white until it is frothy and add the liquid; add the salt and continue beating until it is quite stiff. It should be beaten until it will stay in an inverted bowl.
Mix the beaten white and yolk by folding. Use a spatula for folding. The spatula should have a flexible blade near the end but should be rigid where it joins the handle. Fold by holding the blade of the spatula parallel to the right side of the bowl. Move to the bottom of the bowl, at the same time pressing so that the spatula scrapes the material from the bottom of the bowl. Bring up with the blade parallel to the left side of the bowl. As the spatula is brought across the top of the material turn it upside down. Turn the bowl occasionally, and about every fifth stroke bring the spatula up through the middle of the material for better mixing. Fold white and yolk until well blended. They should not be mixed until a large portion of the air is lost from the white, but they must be mixed enough to prevent separation of the white and yolk. Count the number of strokes used in mixing the yolk and white. The number needed will vary with the size and kind of utensil, usually about 20 to 25. The same number of strokes should be used in mixing for all the experimental work and also the same size and kind of utensils. If desired, different makes and styles of egg beaters and whisks can be used. Count the motions required to beat the egg whites to the same degree of stiffness. The butter is put in a frying pan or an omelet pan of the proper size for a one-egg omelet. Melt the butter in the pan. Add the omelet and cook over a medium flame for about 1/2 minute before placing in the oven. Have the temperature of the oven 160° to 165°C. (320°-330°F.). Oven baking is not necessary but it gives a uniform temperature for class work. Bake 25 minutes. If necessary, increase or decrease the time of baking. See Fig. 36, p. 362.
A. To determine the effect of omitting the liquid and the effect of using different liquids.
1. Omit the liquid in the recipe.
2. Use water for the liquid in the recipe.
3. Use milk for the liquid in the recipe.
4. Use tomato juice for the liquid in the recipe.
5. Use 1 teaspoon of lemon juice and 2 teaspoons of water for the liquid in the recipe.
Which omelet gives the greatest volume? Which is the most tender? What happens in 3?
No. of strokes used for mixing
Results and conclusions.
B. To determine the effect on the volume and the texture of omelets of combining the liquid with the egg yolk.
Repeat the series under A1, but combine the liquid with the beaten yolk.
C. To determine the effect of cooking at different temperatures.
1. Repeat A2, and bake at 160°C. (320°F.).
2. Repeat A2, and bake at 140°C. (285°F.).
3. Repeat A2, and bake at 180°C. (355°F.). Which cooking temperature gives the best results? Results.
D. To determine the effect of beating the egg white to different stages of stiffness on the texture and the volume of omelets.
1. Repeat A2, for a control.
2. Repeat A2, but beat the egg white until very dry and flaky.
3. Repeat A2, but beat the white until it will flow if the bowl is inverted and is not as stiff as for Dl. Results,
To determine some of the factors affecting the desirability and texture of meringues. Recipe:
Water (may be omitted)
4 tablespoons 2 teaspoons 1/16 teaspoon 1/4 teaspoon
60 grams 50 grams
Directions for mixing.
. Beat the egg white until foamy, 50 turns of handle of rotary beater. Add the water, salt, vanilla, and beat an additional 100 turns with rotary beater. Add sugar and beat 50 turns with rotary beater. (Note. The sugar may be added gradually. If added in this manner, the amount of beating after addition of salt should be shortened. Ask instructor for directions. Change or adapt the extent of beating to suit the type of beater used, whether water is added, and the consistency of the egg white.) The above quantity of meringue should give enough for 4 pies about 6 inches in diameter. The meringues should be between 3/4 and 1 l/2 inches in depth. Bake pastry. Fill shells with chocolate, lemon, or butterscotch filling as desired. Spread the meringue carefully over the filling to the edge of the crust, leaving it somewhat rough over the top. The meringue may be placed on a hot or cold filling. However, if added to a cold filling the time for baking will be longer, especially at the lower temperatures. When possible keep portions of the pie over night to observe the extent of leakage of the meringue.
A. Temperature of baking.
1. Bake at 230°C. (446° or 450°F. may be used) for 4 minutes.
2. Bake at 215°C. (420° or 425°F. may be used) for 6 minutes.
3. Bake at 200°C. (392° or 400°F. may be used) for 8 minutes.
4. Bake at 185°C. (365°F. or 375°F. may be used) for 12 to 15 minutes.
5. Bake at 170°C. (338°F. or 350°F. may be used) for 15 to 20 minutes.
6. Bake at 155°C. (311°F. or 300°F. may be used) for 25 to 30 minutes.
B. Amount and kind of sugar.
Bake at temperature found best under A.
1. Use 1 tablespoon (12.5 grams) sugar per egg white.
2. Use 1 1/2 tablespoons (18.5 grams) sugar per egg white.
3. Use 2 tablespoons (25 grams) sugar per egg white.
4. Use 2 1/2 tablespoons (31 grams) sugar per egg white.
5. Repeat B3, substituting powdered sugar for the granulated sugar.
6. Use 1 tablespoon honey or sirup per egg white.
C. Extent of beating after sugar is added.
Bake at temperature found best under A and use amount of sugar found best under B.
1. Beat 25 turns of handle of rotary beater after sugar is added.
2. Beat 50 turns after sugar is added.
3. Beat 75 turns after sugar is added.
4. Beat 100 turns after sugar is added.
5. Fold in sugar with spatula, using 50 folds.
D. Time of adding sugar to egg white.
Bake at temperature found best under A and use amount of sugar found best under B. Beat until foamy, add sugar and cook as indicated.
1. Add sugar and water (if used) at first and beat until shiny and stiff. Beat 200 turns of beater handle. Remove 1/4 of mixture for Dl.
2. Beat the mixture remaining from Dl 250 turns of the beater handle. Remove 1/4 of original mixture for part 2.
3. Beat the meringue remaining from D2 300 turns. Use 1/4 of the original mixture for part 3.
4. Beat the remaining meringue 300 turns.
Repeat the above series. Beat egg white until foamy. Add water (if used) and start adding sugar gradually. Beat until stiff.
E. Amount and kind of liquid.
Bake at temperature found best under A.
1. Do not add liquid to egg white.
2. Use 1 teaspoon of water for the full recipe.
3. Use 2 teaspoons of water for the full recipe.
4. Repeat E2 using lemon juice.